Francisco Vitoria was the earliest and arguably the most important of the Thomist political philosophers of the Counter-Reformation. Not only did he write important essays on civil and ecclesiastical power, but he became celebrated for his defence of the new world Indians against the imperialism of his own master, the King of Spain. Vitoria's political works are thus of great importance for an understanding both of the rise of modern absolutism, and the debate about the emergent imperialism of the European powers. His works are also unusually accessible, since they survive mainly in the form of 'relectiones', or summaries delivered at the end of his lecture courses on law and theology at the University of Salamanca. Translated here into English for the first time, these texts comprise the core of Vitoria's thought, and will be of interest to specialists in political theory and the history of ideas, ecclesiastical history, and the history of early modern Spain. A comprehensive introduction, a chronology, and a bibliography accompany the texts.
An assessment of the human condition in the twenty-first century presents data demonstrating that life quality, health, prosperity, safety, peace, knowledge, and happiness are on the rise throughout the world because of the Enlightenment ideal of using reason and science.
Francisco Suárez was a principal figure in the transition from scholastic to modern natural law, summing up a long and rich tradition and providing much material both for adoption and controversy in the seventeenth century and beyond. Most of the selections translated in this volume are from On the Laws and God the Law-Giver (De legibus ac Deo legislatore, 1612), a work that is considered one of Suárez’s greatest achievements. Working within the framework originally elaborated by Thomas Aquinas, Suárez treated humanity as the subject of four different laws, which together guide human beings toward the ends of which they are capable. Suárez achieved a double objective in his systematic account of moral activity. First, he examined and synthesized the entire scholastic heritage of thinking on this topic, identifying the key issues of debate and the key authors who had formulated the different positions most incisively. Second, he went beyond this heritage of authorities to present a new account of human moral action and its relationship to the law. Treading a fine line between those to whom moral directives are purely a matter of reason and those to whom they are purely a matter of a commanding will, Suárez attempted to show how both human reason and the command of the lawgiver dictate the moral space of human action. The Liberty Fund edition is a revised version of that prepared for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace by translators Gwladys L. Williams, Ammi Brown, and John Waldron, with revisions by Henry Davis, S. J. Francisco Suárez (1548-1617), a Jesuit priest, was professor of theology at the University of Salamanca in Spain. Annabel S. Brett is a Fellow, Tutor, and University Lecturer in History at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.
French political libertarian and economist CLAUDE FRDRIC BASTIAT (1801-1850) was one of the most eloquent champions of the concept that property rights and individual freedoms flowed from natural law. Here, in this 1850 classic, a powerful refutation of Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto, published two years earlier, Bastiat discusses: . what is law? . why socialism constitutes legal plunder . the proper function of the law . the law and morality . "the vicious circle of socialism" . the basis for stable government . and more.
The Art of War is the oldest and most influential military strategy text in existence, and Sun Tzu's teachings on how to successfully respond to and handle situations of conflict is a must-read for for today's business leaders (and politicians, and many others). Whether you approach this reading for its historical significance or choose to apply this knowledge toward achieving success in your own life, you will be enlightened. This elegantly designed clothbound edition features an elastic closure and a new introduction.
An important figure in the natural law tradition and in the Scottish Enlightenment, Gershom Carmichael defended a strong theory of rights and drew attention to Grotius, Pufendorf, and Locke. Gershom Carmichael was a teacher and writer who played an important role in the Scottish Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. His philosophy focused on the natural rights of individuals--the natural right to defend oneself, to own the property on which one has labored, and to services contracted for with others. Carmichael argued that slavery is incompatible with the rights of men and citizens, and he believed that subjects have the right to resist rulers who exceed the limits of their powers. Although he appealed to the authority of Grotius and Locke, the grounds on which he defended natural rights were distinctively his own. He drew upon the Reformed or Presbyterian theology to propose that, in respecting the natural rights of individuals, one shows one’s reverence for God’s creation. Inasmuch as all of mankind longs for lasting happiness, which can be found only in worship of or reverence for God, such reverence is the natural law which obliges all to respect the rights of all. Natural Rights includes Supplements and Observations on Pufendorf (1724), Natural Theology (1729), Logic (1722), two theses, and a manuscript on teaching, all in English for the first time. Gershom Carmichael (1672-1729) was the first professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow, preceding Hutcheson, Smith, and Reid. James Moore is Professor of Political Science at Concordia University in Montreal. Michael Silverthorne is Honorary University Fellow in the School of Classics at the University of Exeter. Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History and Director of the Centre for Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.
'The life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short' Written during the chaos of the English Civil War, Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan asks how, in a world of violence and horror, can we stop ourselves from descending into anarchy? Hobbes' case for a 'common-wealth' under a powerful sovereign - or 'Leviathan' - to enforce security and the rule of law, shocked his contemporaries, and his book was publicly burnt for sedition the moment it was published. But his penetrating work of political philosophy - now fully revised and with a new introduction for this edition - opened up questions about the nature of statecraft and society that influenced governments across the world. Edited with a new introduction by Christopher Brooke
Now a Hulu Original Series The Handmaid’s Tale is a novel of such power that the reader will be unable to forget its images and its forecast. Set in the near future, it describes life in what was once the United States and is now called the Republic of Gilead, a monotheocracy that has reacted to social unrest and a sharply declining birthrate by reverting to, and going beyond, the repressive intolerance of the original Puritans. The regime takes the Book of Genesis absolutely at its word, with bizarre consequences for the women and men in its population. The story is told through the eyes of Offred, one of the unfortunate Handmaids under the new social order. In condensed but eloquent prose, by turns cool-eyed, tender, despairing, passionate, and wry, she reveals to us the dark corners behind the establishment’s calm facade, as certain tendencies now in existence are carried to their logical conclusions. The Handmaid’s Tale is funny, unexpected, horrifying, and altogether convincing. It is at once scathing satire, dire warning, and a tour de force. It is Margaret Atwood at her best.
This was Pufendorf's first work, published in 1660. Its appearance effectively inaugurated the modern natural-law movement in the German-speaking world. The work also established Pufendorf as a key figure and laid the foundations for his major works, which were to sweep across Europe and North America. Pufendorf rejected the concept of natural rights as liberties and the suggestion that political government is justified by its protection of such rights, arguing instead for a principled limit to the state's role in human life.
Though the revised edition of A Theory of Justice, published in 1999, is the definitive statement of Rawls's view, so much of the extensive literature on Rawls's theory refers to the first edition. This reissue makes the first edition once again available for scholars and serious students of Rawls's work.
Christian Thomasius’s natural jurisprudence is essential to understanding the origins of the Enlightenment in Germany, where his importance was comparable to that of John Locke’s in England. First published in 1688, Thomasius’s Institutionum jurisprudentiae divinae (Institutes of Divine Jurisprudence) attempted to draw a clear distinction between natural and revealed law and to emphasize that human reason was able to know the precepts of natural law without the aid of Scripture. Thomasius also argued that his orthodox Lutheran opponents had failed to understand this distinction and thereby had confused reason and Scripture. In addition to the Institutes of Divine Jurisprudence, this volume contains significant selections from his Fundamenta juris naturae et gentium (Foundations of the Law of Nature and Nations), published in 1705. In Foundations Thomasius significantly revised the theory he had put forward in the Institutes, and much of the Foundations therefore is a paragraph-by-paragraph commentary on his earlier ideas. These works are a companion to Thomasius’s Essays on Church, State, and Politics, and together they provide the first-ever English presentation of this preeminent German thinker. Christian Thomasius (1655-1728) was a German philosopher and legal theorist. He was a cofounder of the University of Halle, where he was also a professor. Thomas Ahnert is a Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Edinburgh. Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.
Grotius, Hugo. The Rights of War and Peace, in Three Books: Wherein are Explained, The Law of Nature and Nations, and The Principal Points relating to Government. Written in Latin by the Learned Hugo Grotius, And Translated into English. To which are Added, All the Large Notes of Mr. J. Barbeyrac... London: Printed for W. Innys [et al.], 1738. xxxvi, 817 pp. Folio, 9" x 14." Reprinted 2004 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 1-58477-386-3. Cloth. $250. * The "best edition" of a landmark work on law and government by Hugo Grotius [1535-1645] (Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature, Rev. ed. III, 950). First published in Paris in 1625, it established the system of modern public international law, based on the concept of "droit naturel," a morality-based law that superseded the personalities of individuals or nations. These ideas influenced the American Revolution, whose leaders often cited Grotius. "No legal work ever enjoyed a more widely extended reputation, and none ever exercised such a wonderful influence over the public morals of Europe." Marvin, Legal Bibliography 353. This edition features the notes of J. Barbeyrac described by Marvin as excellent. (Whewell) Sweet and Maxwell, A Legal Bibliography of the British Commonwealth of Nations I: 595. Sowerby, Library of Thomas Jefferson 1404. Printing and the Mind of Man 125. Indexed.
“Fascinating....Loaded with perceptive and provocative comments on Shakespeare’s plots, characters, and contemporary analogs.” —Justice John Paul Stevens, Supreme Court of the United States “Kenji Yoshino is the face and the voice of the new civil rights.” —Barbara Ehrenreich, author of Nickled and Dimed A Thousand Times More Fair is a highly inventive and provocative exploration of ethics and the law that uses the plays of William Shakespeare as a prism through which to view the nature of justice in our contemporary lives. Celebrated law professor and author Kenji Yoshino delves into ten of the most important works of the Immortal Bard of Avon, offering prescient and thought-provoking discussions of lawyers, property rights, vengeance (legal and otherwise), and restitution that have tremendous significance to the defining events of our times—from the O.J. Simpson trial to Abu Ghraib. Anyone fascinated by important legal and social issues—as well as fans of Shakespeare-centered bestsellers like Will in the World—will find A Thousand Times More Fair an exceptionally rewarding reading experience.