From bestselling author Michael Shermer, an investigation of the evolution of morality that is "a paragon of popularized science and philosophy" The Sun (Baltimore) A century and a half after Darwin first proposed an "evolutionary ethics," science has begun to tackle the roots of morality. Just as evolutionary biologists study why we are hungry (to motivate us to eat) or why sex is enjoyable (to motivate us to procreate), they are now searching for the very nature of humanity. In The Science of Good and Evil, science historian Michael Shermer explores how humans evolved from social primates to moral primates; how and why morality motivates the human animal; and how the foundation of moral principles can be built upon empirical evidence. Along the way he explains the implications of scientific findings for fate and free will, the existence of pure good and pure evil, and the development of early moral sentiments among the first humans. As he closes the divide between science and morality, Shermer draws on stories from the Yanamamö, infamously known as the "fierce people" of the tropical rain forest, to the Stanford studies on jailers' behavior in prisons. The Science of Good and Evil is ultimately a profound look at the moral animal, belief, and the scientific pursuit of truth.
Von Psychopathen wie Charles Manson oder Serienmördern wie Jack the Ripper geht eine unheimliche Faszination aus. Doch woher kommt sie? Und warum verdrängen wir so gern das alltäglichere Böse – von den eigenen Gewaltphantasien bis zum Machtmissbrauch im Büro? Die Kriminalpsychologin und Bestsellerautorin Julia Shaw taucht das Phänomen des Bösen in neues Licht. Shaw sucht und findet das Böse nicht nur in den Gehirnen von Massenmördern, sondern in jedem von uns. Und sie erläutert mithilfe psychologischer Fallstudien und neuester neurowissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse, wie wir uns mit unserer dunklen Seite versöhnen. Ein augenöffnendes Buch, das die vertrauten Kategorien von Gut und Böse völlig über den Haufen wirft.
Die Wissenschaft vom (Aber-)Glauben Heutzutage trennen wir die Welt oft in eine Sphäre des Natürlichen und eine des Übernatürlichen. Unsere fünf Sinne erlauben uns, die natürliche Welt wahrzunehmen und zu verstehen, doch diese Sinne – das Sehen, das Riechen, das Schmecken, das Fühlen und das Hören – erklären nicht unseren Sinn für das Übernatürliche. In Natürlich übernatürlich beleuchtet Bruce Hood, auf welche Weise wir Menschen das Übernatürliche begreifen, und liefert uns einen fundierten Einblick in die Gründe, warum wir (an) das Unglaubliche glauben. _____ Die Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung ist religiös oder glaubt an übernatürliche Phänomene. In den USA glauben neun von zehn Erwachsenen an Gott, und eine aktuelle Gallup-Umfrage zeigte, das etwa drei von vier Amerikanern in irgendeiner Form an Telepathie, Präkognition, Geister oder die Wiedergeburt glauben. Woher rührt dieses übernatürliche Gedankengut? Werden wir von unseren Eltern, von Kirchen und Medien indoktriniert, oder entstehen diese Glaubensinhalte auf andere Weise? In Natürlich übernatürlich gewährt uns der mehrfach ausgezeichnete Kognitionspsychologe Bruce M. Hood tiefe Einblicke in die Wissenschaft des Glauben an das Übernatürliche. Aberglaube und magisches Denken sind allgegenwärtig. Viele von uns drücken jemandem die Daumen, klopfen auf Holz, meiden schwarze Katzen oder gehen nicht unter Leitern hindurch. Der Tennisspieler John McEnroe weigerte sich, zwischen den Ballwechseln auf die weißen Linien des Platzes zu treten. Der Baseballspieler Wade Boggs bestand darauf, vor jedem Spiel der Boston Red Sox ein Hähnchen zum Abendessen zu verzehren. Präsident Barack Obama spielte am Morgen seines Siegs bei der Vorwahl in Iowa Basketball und setzte diese Gewohnheit dann an jedem weiteren Wahltag fort. Das übernatürliche Denken umfasst auch erhabenere Vorstellungen, etwa die sentimentalen Gefühle, die wir mit Fotos unserer Lieben verbinden, Trauringe und Teddybären. Auch der spirituellen Glaube und die Hoffnung auf ein Jenseits gehören dazu. Aber wir leben doch in einem modernen, wissenschaftlichen Zeitalter – warum also halten wir an solchen Verhaltensweisen und Glaubenssystemen fest? Wie sich zeigt, ist der Glaube an Dinge jenseits des Rationalen und Natürlichen allen Menschen gemein und taucht schon früh in der Kindheit auf. Tatsächlich ist, so Hood, dieser „Übersinn“ etwas, mit dem wir geboren werden - ein Sinn, den wir im Laufe des Lebens weiter entwickeln und der essenziell ist für die Art, wie wir die Welt verstehen. Ohne ihn könnten wir gar nicht leben! Unser Geist ist von vornherein darauf ausgerichtet, zu glauben, dass unsichtbare Muster, Kräfte und Wesenheiten die Welt durchdringen. Insofern ist es eher unwahrscheinlich, dass Versuche, den übernatürlichen Glauben oder abergläubische Verhaltensweisen zu verbannen, Erfolg haben werden. Diese gemeinsamen Glaubensvorstellungen und "heiligen" Werte sind wesentliche Grundlagen für den Zusammenhalt unserer Gesellschaft, denn sie helfen uns, eine tiefere Verbindung zwischen uns zu sehen.
This book describes the application of Artificial Life simulation to evolutionary scenarios of wide ethical interest, including the evolution of altruism, rape and abortion, providing a new meaning to “experimental philosophy”. The authors also apply evolutionary ALife techniques to explore contentious issues within evolutionary theory itself, such as the evolution of aging. They justify these uses of simulation in science and philosophy, both in general and in their specific applications here.Evolving Ethics will be of interest to researchers, enthusiasts, students and interested lay readers in the fields of Artificial Life, philosophy of science, ethics, agent- and individual-based modeling in ecology and the social sciences, computer simulation, evolutionary biology, evolutionary psychology and the social sciences.Dr Steven Mascaro is a researcher in computer simulation and Artificial Life.Dr Kevin Korb is a Reader in the Clayton School of Information Technology, Monash University.Dr Ann Nicholson is an Associate Professor in the Clayton School of Information Technology, Monash University.Owen Woodberry is a researcher in the Clayton School of Information Technology, Monash University.
This is a profound study of Aristotle’s concept of phronesis, or practical wisdom. Carlo Natali critically reconsiders Aristotle’s famous doctrine of contemplation, relating it to contemporary theories of the good life. In Book X of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle appears to claim that the best possible life is that which is engaged in theoria, usually translated “contemplation.” Quite a few commentators have criticized what they call Aristotle’s “intellectualism,” suggesting that when he makes the intellectual life superior to all other human goods he opens the door to a Raskolnikov-like immoralism. Natali threads his way very carefully through the tangle of recent arguments on the topic, and presents a persuasive resolution that preserves the primacy of the life of the mind without giving any room for justifications of amorality. In Natali’s discussion, Aristotle’s analysis of wisdom comes into focus for us today as an attractive and well-argued ideal, to be kept in mind when we are deciding how to live. Natali has a keen understanding of both the continental and the analytic tendencies in interpreting Aristotle, and is able to show the positive and negative contributions of both styles of philosophy to this task. Appearing in English for the first time, this is the definitive scholarly treatment on the role of practical reasoning in ethics.
This book is a major work in the history of ethics, and provides the first study of early modern British philosophy in several decades. Professor Darwall discerns two distinct traditions feeding into the moral philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the one hand, there is the empirical, naturalist tradition, comprising Hobbes, Locke, Cumberland, Hutcheson, and Hume, which argues that obligation is the practical force that empirical discoveries acquire in the process of deliberation. On the other hand, there is the group including Cudworth, Shaftesbury, Butler, and in some moments Locke, which views obligation as inconceivable without autonomy and which seeks to develop a theory of the will as self-determining.
Wir sind die Summe unserer Erinnerungen. Stimmen diese aber auch? Haben prägende Ereignisse unserer Kindheit überhaupt so stattgefunden? Identität ist ein kunstvoll gewebter Teppich aus Erinnerungsfragmenten. Die Rechtspsychologin Julia Shaw erklärt, warum dem Gehirn dabei ständig Fehler unterlaufen. Und das Tappen in die Erinnerungsfalle hat Konsequenzen: Wir können uns auf unser Gedächtnis nicht verlassen. Auf der Grundlage neuester Erkenntnisse von Neurowissenschaft und Psychologie sowie ihrer eigenen bahnbrechenden Forschung zeigt Shaw, welchen Erinnerungen wir trauen können und welchen nicht. Ein verblüffender Einblick in die wahnwitzigen Mechanismen des menschlichen Gehirns.
"This timely, accessible reference and text addresses some of the most fundamental questions about human behavior, such as what causes racism and prejudice and why good people do bad things. Leading authorities present state-of-the-science theoretical and empirical work. Essential themes include the complex interaction of individual, societal, and situational factors underpinning good or evil behavior; the role of moral emotions, unconscious bias, and the self-concept; issues of responsibility and motivation; and how technology and globalization have enabled newer forms of threat and harm. Key Words/Subject Areas: aggression, altruism, antisocial, evil, free will, good, guilt, heroism, human behavior, morality, prejudice, prosocial, racism, shame, social psychology, stereotyping, terrorism, values, violence Audience: Students and researchers in social psychology; also of interest to sociologists. "--
A new translation and edition of Nietzsche's powerful and influential critique of philosophy.
A three-volume 'synthesis of science, religion, and philosophy' by one of the nineteenth century's most controversial spiritualists.
Bestselling author Michael Shermer's exploration of science and morality that demonstrates how the scientific way of thinking has made people, and society as a whole, more moral From Galileo and Newton to Thomas Hobbes and Martin Luther King, Jr., thinkers throughout history have consciously employed scientific techniques to better understand the non-physical world. The Age of Reason and the Enlightenment led theorists to apply scientific reasoning to the non-scientific disciplines of politics, economics, and moral philosophy. Instead of relying on the woodcuts of dissected bodies in old medical texts, physicians opened bodies themselves to see what was there; instead of divining truth through the authority of an ancient holy book or philosophical treatise, people began to explore the book of nature for themselves through travel and exploration; instead of the supernatural belief in the divine right of kings, people employed a natural belief in the right of democracy. In The Moral Arc, Shermer will explain how abstract reasoning, rationality, empiricism, skepticism--scientific ways of thinking--have profoundly changed the way we perceive morality and, indeed, move us ever closer to a more just world.
Science fiction and fantasy and their various subgenres are summarized, and recommended books in each subgenre are described, in this guide for librarians unfamiliar with science fiction and fantasy. Subgenres covered include classic and general science fiction, cyberpunk, time travel, aliens, historical fantasy, quest fantasy, and fantasy romance. An appendix lists Hugo, Nebula, Mythopoeic, and World Fantasy award winners.
"The founder of the United Church of Religious Science, an international religious movement, presents his basic spiritual tenets, showing readers how to get in touch with nature's forces and God's healing power."—Amazon.com.
Reale's volume supplies a synthesis previously lacking--a synthesis in the historical treatment of the great philosophies of the Hellenistic Age: the Academy, the Peripatos, the Stoa, the Garden of Epicurus, Scepticism, and Eclecticism. Reale's extensive and fully documented treatment of the major schools of the period is unified by his thesis that the ethics developed by these major schools were secular faiths that sprang from intuitions about the meaning of life first emotionally grasped and then systematically and rationally developed. It is for this reason that the teachings of these schools endured almost continuously for about 500 years. It is for the same reason that the founders of the schools were considered gods and were actually, in a certain sense, the saints of secular faiths and religions. In this book, Reale traces the decline of the philosophical schools of the classical period, the post-Platonic Academy, the post-Aristotelian Peripatos, and the minor socratic schools. The destruction of the polis and the incapacity of the schools to address the concerns of the new age were the fertile grounds from which the new schools developed. The Garden of Epicurus, the Porch of Zeno, and the sceptical movement initiated by Pyrrho form the core of the volume. The volume contains a select bibliography and an index of names and Greek terms, as well as an index of citations.
Reale’s volume supplies a synthesis previously lacking—a synthesis in the historical treatment of the great philosophies of the Hellenistic Age: the Academy, the Peripatos, the Stoa, the Garden of Epicurus, Scepticism, and Eclecticism. Reale’s extensive and fully documented treatment of the major schools of the period is unified by his thesis that the ethics developed by these major schools were secular faiths that sprang from intuitions about the meaning of life first emotionally grasped and then systematically and rationally developed. It is for this reason that the teachings of these schools endured almost continuously for about 500 years. It is for the same reason that the founders of the schools were considered gods and were actually, in a certain sense, the saints of secular faiths and religions. In this book, Reale traces the decline of the philosophical schools of the classical period, the post-Platonic Academy, the post-Aristotelian Peripatos, and the minor socratic schools. The destruction of the polis and the incapacity of the schools to address the concerns of the new age were the fertile grounds from which the new schools developed. The Garden of Epicurus, the Porch of Zeno, and the sceptical movement initiated by Pyrrho form the core of the volume. The volume contains a select bibliography and an index of names and Greek terms, as well as an index of citations.
»Religion ist irrational, fortschrittsfeindlich und zerstörerisch.« Richard Dawkins, einer der einflussreichsten Intellektuellen der Gegenwart, zeigt, warum der Glaube an Gott einer vernünftigen Betrachtung nicht standhalten kann. Ein wichtiges Buch, das zu einem brennend aktuellen Thema eindeutig und überzeugend Position bezieht – brillant und bei aller Schärfe humorvoll. Entdecken Sie auch das Hörbuch zu diesem Titel!

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