The author contends that the manner in which one defines a problem determines what is done about it. To explain this he examines fundamental issues to gain an accurate definition of the problem, specifically challenging the ability of social sciences to make valid predictions. He aims to bring a deep understanding of the philosophy and history of science, the philosophy of education and a fingertip sensitivity to knowledge utilization issues as they pertain to contemporary problems in education at all levels, elementary, secondary as well as higher education.
The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first systematic and comprehensive reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book offers a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings. Considering historical triumphs of research as well as tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analysing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the textbook examines issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent as well as focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests and other aspects of responsible conduct of research. The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research with human beings.
Published in the year 1982, The Social and Psychological Contexts of Language is a valuable contribution to the field of Social Psychology.
Every ten years, Alan Chalmers draws on his experience as a teacher and researcher to improve and update the text that strives to answer the philosophical question in it’s title: What is This Thing Called Science? Identifying the qualitative difference between knowledge of atoms as it figures in contemporary science and metaphysical speculations about atoms common in philosophy since the time of Democritus proves to be a highly revealing and instructive way to pinpoint key features of the answer to that question. The most significant feature of this fourth edition is the extensive postscript, in which Chalmers uses the results of his recent research on the history of atomism to illustrate and enliven key themes in the philosophy of science. This new edition ensures that the book holds its place as the leading introduction to the philosophy of science for the foreseeable future.
Government agencies and commissions, courts, and legislatures have during the past several decades produced reports, rendered decisions, and passed laws that have both defined the fundamental issues in the field of bioethics and established ways of managing them in our society. Providing a history of these key bioethical decisions, this Source Book in Bioethics is the first and only comprehensive collection of the critical public documents in biomedical ethics, including many hard-to-find or out-of-print materials. Covering the period from 1947 to 1995, this volume brings together core legislative documents, court briefs, and reports by professional organizations, public bodies, and governments around the world. Sections on human experimentation, care of the terminally ill, genetics, human reproduction, and emerging areas in bioethics include such pivotal works as "The Nuremberg Code," "The Tuskegee Report," and "In the Matter of Baby M," as well less readily available documents as "The Declaration of Inuyama," the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences statement on genetic engineering, and "The Warnock Committee Report" on reproductive technologies from the United Kingdom. Three eminent scholars in the field provide brief introductions to each document explaining the significance of these classic sources. This historical volume will be a standard text for courses in bioethics, health policy, and death and dying, and a primary reference for anyone interested in this increasingly relevant field.
Weiten's PSYCHOLOGY: THEMES AND VARIATIONS, Ninth Edition, maintains this book's strengths while addressing market changes with new learning objectives, a complete updating, and a fresh new design. The text continues to provide a unique survey of psychology that meets three goals: to demonstrate the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter, to illuminate the research process and its link to application, and to make the material challenging and thought-provoking yet easy to learn. Weiten accomplishes the successful balance of scientific rigor and a student-friendly approach through the integration of seven unifying themes, an unparalleled didactic art program, real-life examples, and a streamlined set of learning aids that help students see beyond research to big-picture concepts. Major topics typically covered in today's courses are included, such as evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, biological psychology, positive psychology, applied psychology, careers, and multiculturalism and diversity. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
With indispensable advice for students from all social science backgrounds, this handbook provides the core conceptual and practical skills to embark on succesful research. The organization of the book reflects the knowledge that is required in order to become a competent and effective researcher. It follows the life-cycle of the research project: it begins with a discussion of ethical and philosphical issues; presents guides to both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis; provides help on using computers in research; and includes advice on how to write up and present a research project. Based on the UK Economic and Social Research Council advice on the training which students should undertake in preparation for postgraduate research, this book will be invaluable for all beginning researchers.
The first text to promote a new method of discursive research in practice developed by combining conversation analysis with the fresh treatment of epistemology, mind, cognition and personality developed in discursive psychology. Written for graduates and academics interested in discursive psychology, discourse analysis and social and critical psychology.
As a book on public policy, this book is unique in addressing explicitly the role of human nature. Only with a good understanding of human nature can policy makers address their foremost needs and anticipate how people may respond to specific designs in policy. This way policy makers can avoid "unintended consequences." The book also provides a new perspective on the meaning of public interest, which is based on intellectual roots dating back to J.S.Mill and more recently Harsanyi and Rawls. Traditionally, economists have referred to either the Hicksian criterion or the Kaldorian criterion as the yardstick to whether a policy is welfare enhancing, not realizing that both of these criteria fail abjectly in producing a convincing test for welfare improvement. This is because ex post, typically some people will gain and some people will lose from any policy. The author argues for an alternative, ex ante welfare increase criterion that is based on how people would assess a policy if they were completely impartial and totally ignored their personal interests. It applies the principles to key policy concerns such as health policy, tort law reform, education and cultural policy, and pension reform. The healthcare reform proposals in the book illustrate the application of the principles. The author proposes a basic protection plan under which standard basic healthcare services are priced the same whether they are provided by public or private caregivers—at levels that can contain both demand side and supply side moral hazard. Annual eligible healthcare expenses are capped to alleviate worries. A "Lifetime Healthcare Supplement" that includes an element of risk sharing adds to patients’ choice and protection without compromising fiscal sustainability.
Post-modernism offers a revolutionary approach to the study of society: in questioning the validity of modern science and the notion of objective knowledge, this movement discards history, rejects humanism, and resists any truth claims. In this comprehensive assessment of post-modernism, Pauline Rosenau traces its origins in the humanities and describes how its key concepts are today being applied to, and are restructuring, the social sciences. Serving as neither an opponent nor an apologist for the movement, she cuts through post-modernism's often incomprehensible jargon in order to offer all readers a lucid exposition of its propositions. Rosenau shows how the post-modern challenge to reason and rational organization radiates across academic fields. For example, in psychology it questions the conscious, logical, coherent subject; in public administration it encourages a retreat from central planning and from reliance on specialists; in political science it calls into question the authority of hierarchical, bureaucratic decision-making structures that function in carefully defined spheres; in anthropology it inspires the protection of local, primitive cultures from First World attempts to reorganize them. In all of the social sciences, she argues, post-modernism repudiates representative democracy and plays havoc with the very meaning of "left-wing" and "right-wing." Rosenau also highlights how post-modernism has inspired a new generation of social movements, ranging from New Age sensitivities to Third World fundamentalism. In weighing its strengths and weaknesses, the author examines two major tendencies within post-modernism, the largely European, skeptical form and the predominantly Anglo-North-American form, which suggests alternative political, social, and cultural projects. She draws examples from anthropology, economics, geography, history, international relations, law, planning, political science, psychology, sociology, urban studies, and women's studies, and provides a glossary of post-modern terms to assist the uninitiated reader with special meanings not found in standard dictionaries.
Outcome-Based MassageTM: Putting Evidence into Practice (3rd edition) goes beyond an update of the content of the second edition. In this book, Dr Andrade and a team of contributors who represent the fields of massage therapy, physical therapy, athletic training, education, psychology, medicine, and physiology take the student or practicing clinician to the next level of using Outcome-Based MassageTM in daily clinical practice. This edition enhances and builds upon the strengths of the first two editions as follows: · Fully updated chapters provide a comprehensive approach to assessment, treatment design, and treatment delivery · Streamlined presentation of theory and practice enhances the teaching and learning experience · Quick Treatment Guides provide a colorful, immediate reference for anatomy, pathophysiology, impairments, and wellness goals for 16 musculoskeletal conditions · New section on the scientific basis of soft-tissue examination provides students and practitioners with the very latest understanding of the emerging body of knowledge in this field · Review sections in each chapter provide Takeaways that summarize key concepts, critical thinking questions, and clinical cases that illustrate the practical application of the concepts discussed in the chapter · Precise, instructive photographs and videos give students and practitioners clear, direct guidance for using the techniques presented in this text
Dominant approaches to the transformation of Europe ignore contemporary social theory interpretations of the nature and dynamics of social change. Here, Delanty and Rumford argue that we need a theory of society in order to understand Europeanization. This book advances the case that Europeanization should be theorized in terms of: globalization major social transformations that are not exclusively spear-headed by the EU the wider context of the transformation of modernity. This fascinating book broadens the terms of the debate on Europeanization, conventionally limited to the supersession of the nation-state by a supra-national authority and the changes within member states consequent upon EU membership. Demonstrating the relevance of social theory to contemporary issues and with a focus on European transformation rather than simplistic notions of Europe-building, this truly multidisciplinary volume will appeal to readers from a range of social science disciplines, including sociology, geography, political science and European studies.
The debate around the role of drugs in sport is vibrant. There is a wealth of evidence from the hard end of science, telling us how drugs work, how drug testing works, and how many athletes have fallen foul of the system. The evidence from social science is still building momentum. For example, what makes an athlete use a performance enhancing substance? "To win" simply fails to explain the drug use behaviour we see among athletes. This book provides a foundation for anyone trying to understand the drugs in sport problem beyond the hard science by looking at the "people factor" from different perspectives. After building a case for the social science of drugs in sport, it is examined from the ethical, sociological, economic, legal and psychological points of view. The book concludes with a definitive statement about what researchers, policy makers, sports administrators, athletes and fans can do to achieve a social science of drugs in sport that puts people firmly in the centre of the debate. This volume was published as a special issue of Sport in Society.
Offering pragmatic guidance for planning and conducting a meta-analytic review, this book is written in an engaging, nontechnical style that makes it ideal for graduate course use or self-study. The author shows how to identify questions that can be answered using meta-analysis, retrieve both published and unpublished studies, create a coding manual, use traditional and unique effect size indices, and write a meta-analytic review. An ongoing example illustrates meta-analytic techniques. In addition to the fundamentals, the book discusses more advanced topics, such as artifact correction, random- and mixed-effects models, structural equation representations, and multivariate procedures. User-friendly features include annotated equations; discussions of alternative approaches; and "Practical Matters" sections that give advice on topics not often discussed in other books, such as linking meta-analytic results with theory and the utility of meta-analysis software programs.
Major advances in the use of geographic information systems have been made in both anthropology and archaeology. Yet there are few published discussions of these new applications and their use in solving complex problems. This book explores these techniques, showing how they have been successfully deployed to pursue research previously considered too difficult--or impossible--to undertake. Among the projects described here are studies of land degradation in the Peruvian Amazon, settlement patterns in the Pacific northwest, ethnic distribution within the Los Angeles garment industry, and prehistoric sociopolitical development among the Anasazi. Following an introduction that discusses the theory of geographic information systems in relation to anthropological inquiry, the book is divided into sections demonstrating actual applications in cultural anthropology, archaeology, paleoanthropology, and physical anthropology. The work will be of much interest within all these communities.