This book treats the central physical concepts and mathematical techniques used to investigate the dynamics of open quantum systems. To provide a self-contained presentation the text begins with a survey of classical probability theory and with an introduction into the foundations of quantummechanics with particular emphasis on its statistical interpretation. The fundamentals of density matrix theory, quantum Markov processes and dynamical semigroups are developed. The most important master equations used in quantum optics and in the theory of quantum Brownian motion are applied to thestudy of many examples. Special attention is paid to the theory of environment induced decoherence, its role in the dynamical description of the measurement process and to the experimental observation of decohering Schrodinger cat states. The book includes the modern formulation of open quantum systems in terms of stochastic processes in Hilbert space. Stochastic wave function methods and Monte Carlo algorithms are designed and applied to important examples from quantum optics and atomic physics, such as Levy statistics in the lasercooling of atoms, and the damped Jaynes-Cummings model. The basic features of the non-Markovian quantum behaviour of open systems are examined on the basis of projection operator techniques. In addition, the book expounds the relativistic theory of quantum measurements and discusses several examplesfrom a unified perspective, e.g. non-local measurements and quantum teleportation. Influence functional and super-operator techniques are employed to study the density matrix theory in quantum electrodynamics and applications to the destruction of quantum coherence are presented. The text addresses graduate students and lecturers in physics and applied mathematics, as well as researchers with interests in fundamental questions in quantum mechanics and its applications. Many analytical methods and computer simulation techniques are developed and illustrated with the help ofnumerous specific examples. Only a basic understanding of quantum mechanics and of elementary concepts of probability theory is assumed.
In this volume the fundamental theory of open quantum systems is revised in the light of modern developments in the field. A unified approach to the quantum evolution of open systems is presented by merging concepts and methods traditionally employed by different communities, such as quantum optics, condensed matter, chemical physics and mathematical physics. The mathematical structure and the general properties of the dynamical maps underlying open system dynamics are explained in detail. The microscopic derivation of dynamical equations, including both Markovian and non-Markovian evolutions, is also discussed. Because of the step-by-step explanations, this work is a useful reference to novices in this field. However, experienced researches can also benefit from the presentation of recent results.
Presents the developments and applications in the field of quantum open systems. This book discusses topics, such as the non-equilibrium properties of open quantum systems, the Fermi Golden Rule and weak coupling limit, quantum irreversibility and decoherence, qualitative behaviour of quantum Markov semigroups and continual quantum measurements.
This monograph provides graduate students and also professional researchers aiming to understand the dynamics of open quantum systems with a valuable and self-contained toolbox. Special focus is laid on the link between microscopic models and the resulting open-system dynamics. This includes how to derive the celebrated Lindblad master equation without applying the rotating wave approximation. As typical representatives for non-equilibrium configurations it treats systems coupled to multiple reservoirs (including the description of quantum transport), driven systems and feedback-controlled quantum systems. Each method is illustrated with easy-to-follow examples from recent research. Exercises and short summaries at the end of every chapter enable the reader to approach the frontiers of current research quickly and make the book useful for quick reference.
Every part of physics offers examples of non-stability phenomena, but probably nowhere are they so plentiful and worthy of study as in the realm of quantum theory. The present volume is devoted to this problem: we shall be concerned with open quantum systems, i.e. those that cannot be regarded as isolated from the rest of the physical universe. It is a natural framework in which non-stationary processes can be investigated. There are two main approaches to the treatment of open systems in quantum theory. In both the system under consideration is viewed as part of a larger system, assumed to be isolated in a reasonable approximation. They are differentiated mainly by the way in which the state Hilbert space of the open system is related to that of the isolated system - either by orthogonal sum or by tensor product. Though often applicable simultaneously to the same physical situation, these approaches are complementary in a sense and are adapted to different purposes. Here we shall be concerned with the first approach, which is suitable primarily for a description of decay processes, absorption, etc. The second approach is used mostly for the treatment of various relaxation phenomena. It is comparably better examined at present; in particular, the reader may consult a monograph by E. B. Davies.
This book discusses the elementary ideas and tools needed for open quantum systems in a comprehensive manner. The emphasis is given to both the traditional master equation as well as the functional (path) integral approaches. It discusses the basic paradigm of open systems, the harmonic oscillator and the two-level system in detail. The traditional topics of dissipation and tunneling, as well as the modern field of quantum information, find a prominent place in the book. Assuming a basic background of quantum and statistical mechanics, this book will help readers familiarize with the basic tools of open quantum systems. Open quantum systems is the study of quantum dynamics of the system of interest, taking into account the effects of the ambient environment. It is ubiquitous in the sense that any system could be envisaged to be surrounded by its environment which could naturally exert its influence on it. Open quantum systems allows for a systematic understanding of irreversible processes such as decoherence and dissipation, of the essence in order to have a correct understanding of realistic quantum dynamics and also for possible implementations. This would be essential for a possible development of quantum technologies.
Das Buch ist eine Einführung in die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und mathematische Statistik auf mittlerem mathematischen Niveau. Die Pädagogik der Darstellung unterscheidet sich in wesentlichen Teilen – Einführung der Modelle für unabhängige und abhängige Experimente, Darstellung des Suffizienzbegriffes, Ausführung des Zusammenhanges zwischen Testtheorie und Theorie der Bereichschätzung, allgemeine Diskussion der Modellentwicklung – erheblich von der anderer vergleichbarer Lehrbücher. Die Darstellung ist, soweit auf diesem Niveau möglich, mathematisch exakt, verzichtet aber bewußt und ebenfalls im Gegensatz zu vergleichbaren Texten auf die Erörterung von Meßbarkeitsfragen. Der Leser wird dadurch erheblich entlastet, ohne daß wesentliche Substanz verlorengeht. Das Buch will allen, die an der Anwendung der Statistik auf solider Grundlage interessiert sind, eine Einführung bieten, und richtet sich an Studierende und Dozenten aller Studienrichtungen, für die mathematische Statistik ein Werkzeug ist.
Understanding dissipative dynamics of open quantum systems remains a challenge in mathematical physics. This problem is relevant in various areas of fundamental and applied physics. From a mathematical point of view, it involves a large body of knowledge. Significant progress in the understanding of such systems has been made during the last decade. These books present in a self-contained way the mathematical theories involved in the modeling of such phenomena. They describe physically relevant models, develop their mathematical analysis and derive their physical implications. In Volume I the Hamiltonian description of quantum open systems is discussed. This includes an introduction to quantum statistical mechanics and its operator algebraic formulation, modular theory, spectral analysis and their applications to quantum dynamical systems. Volume II is dedicated to the Markovian formalism of classical and quantum open systems. A complete exposition of noise theory, Markov processes and stochastic differential equations, both in the classical and the quantum context, is provided. These mathematical tools are put into perspective with physical motivations and applications. Volume III is devoted to recent developments and applications. The topics discussed include the non-equilibrium properties of open quantum systems, the Fermi Golden Rule and weak coupling limit, quantum irreversibility and decoherence, qualitative behaviour of quantum Markov semigroups and continual quantum measurements.
This book explores some of the connections between dissipative and quantum effects from a theoretical point of view. It focuses on three main topics: the relation between synchronization and quantum correlations, the thermodynamical properties of fluctuations, and the performance of quantum thermal machines. Dissipation effects have a profound impact on the behavior and properties of quantum systems, and the unavoidable interaction with the surrounding environment, with which systems continuously exchange information, energy, angular momentum and matter, is ultimately responsible for decoherence phenomena and the emergence of classical behavior. However, there is a wide intermediate regime in which the interplay between dissipative and quantum effects gives rise to a plethora of rich and striking phenomena that has just started to be understood. In addition, the recent breakthrough techniques in controlling and manipulating quantum systems in the laboratory have made this phenomenology accessible in experiments and potentially applicable.
In this work the objective has been to investigate some aspects of the dynamics of quantum open systems, in particular the quantum theory of dissipation. This is a very vast and challenging topic ranging from fundamental aspects of quantum statistical mechanics, quantum optics to applications in as diverse areas as superconducting devices and quantum gravity. The approach used in these investigations is that of functional integration. This approach, apart from its beauty and elegance is also the most suitable one in the above scenario in that it is able to penetrate into regimes which are inaccessible by other means. The principal object used is the influence functional which is a functional integral that gives the effect of the environment on the system of interest. Here our main thrust has been to develop the tools and techniques of functional integration to investigate some aspects of quantum open systems in their generality. The quantum theory of a Stern-Gerlach system in contact with a linearly dissipative environment is investigated using the influence functional generalized to allow for nonfactorizable initial conditions. Then, the general problem of a two-level at
Understanding dissipative dynamics of open quantum systems remains a challenge in mathematical physics. This problem is relevant in various areas of fundamental and applied physics. Significant progress in the understanding of such systems has been made recently. These books present the mathematical theories involved in the modeling of such phenomena. They describe physically relevant models, develop their mathematical analysis and derive their physical implications.
This volume contains ten lectures presented in the series ULB Lectures in Nonlinear Optics at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles during the period October 28 to November 4, 1991. A large part of the first six lectures is taken from material prepared for a book of somewhat larger scope which will be published,by Springer under the title Quantum Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics. The principal reason for the early publication of the present volume concerns the material contained in the last four lectures. Here I have put together, in a more or less systematic way, some ideas about the use of stochastic wavefunctions in the theory of open quantum optical systems. These ideas were developed with the help of two of my students, Murray Wolinsky and Liguang Tian, over a period of approximately two years. They are built on a foundation laid down in a paper written with Surendra Singh, Reeta Vyas, and Perry Rice on waiting-time distributions and wavefunction collapse in resonance fluorescence [Phys. Rev. A, 39, 1200 (1989)]. The ULB lecture notes contain my first serious atte~pt to give a complete account of the ideas and their potential applications. I am grateful to Professor Paul Mandel who, through his invitation to give the lectures, stimulated me to organize something useful out of work that may, otherwise, have waited considerably longer to be brought together.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.
This volume provides an overview on the decoherence suppression methods in quantum computing, open quantum systems, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computing. It also includes concepts in geometric quantum computing by composite pulses. Quantum wipe effect is explained as an approach for suppressing decoherence of the system. A short contribution on the implementation of holonomic quantum gates with NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) is presented. The lecture notes contributed to this volume are prepared in a self-contained manner hence readers with limited knowledge on the topics could understand the discussions by following the sequence of chapters which begin with mathematical frameworks and progress to the most updated outcomes of the fields. The volume will be useful for a broad audience from graduate students to researchers interested in the field. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Elementary Mathematical Framework for Open Quantum D-Level Systems: Decoherence Overview (539 KB). Contents: Elementary Mathematical Framework for Open Quantum d -Level Systems: Decoherence Overview (G Kimura); Quantum Error Correction and Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing (F Gaitan & R Li); Composite Pulses as Geometric Quantum Gates (Y Ota & Y Kondo); Quantum Wipe Effect (A SaiToh et al.); Holonomic Quantum Gates Using Isospectral Deformation of Ising Model (M Bando et al.). Readership: Advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers in quantum physics, informatics and computer science.
The idea of editing the present volume in the Lecture Notes in Physics series arosewhileorganizingthe“ConferenceonIrreversibleQuantumDynamics”that took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, from July 29 to August 2, 2002. The aim of the Conference was to bring together di?erent groups of - searcherswhoseinterestsandpursuitsinvolveirreversibilityandtimeasymmetry in quantum mechanics. The Conference promoted open and in-depth exchanges of di?erent points of view, concerning both the content and character of qu- tum irreversibility and the methodologies used to study it. The following main themes were addressed: • Theoretical Aspects of Quantum Irreversible Dynamics • Open Quantum Systems and Applications • Foundational Aspects of Irreversible Quantum Dynamics • Asymmetric Time Evolution and Resonances Eachthemewasreviewedbyanexpertinthe?eld,accompaniedbymorespeci?c, research-like shorter talks. The whole topic of quantum irreversibility in all its manifold aspects has always raised a lot of interest, starting with the description of unstable systems in quantum mechanics and the issue of quantum measurement. Further, in - cent years a boost of activity concerning noise, dissipation and open systems has been prompted by the fast developing ?eld of quantum communication and information theory. These considerations motivated the editors to put together a volume that tries to summarize the present day status of the research in the ?eld, with the aim of providing the reader with an accessible and exhaustive introduction to it.
Explores the role of quantum mechanics in biology for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, biology and chemistry.
Advanced research reference examining the closed and open quantum systems Control of Quantum Systems: Theory and Methods provides an insight into the modern approaches to control of quantum systems evolution, with a focus on both closed and open (dissipative) quantum systems. The topic is timely covering the newest research in the field, and presents and summarizes practical methods and addresses the more theoretical aspects of control, which are of high current interest, but which are not covered at this level in other text books. The quantum control theory and methods written in the book are the results of combination of macro-control theory and microscopic quantum system features. As the development of the nanotechnology progresses, the quantum control theory and methods proposed today are expected to be useful in real quantum systems within five years. The progress of the quantum control theory and methods will promote the progress and development of quantum information, quantum computing, and quantum communication. Equips readers with the potential theories and advanced methods to solve existing problems in quantum optics/information/computing, mesoscopic systems, spin systems, superconducting devices, nano-mechanical devices, precision metrology. Ideal for researchers, academics and engineers in quantum engineering, quantum computing, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum physics, and quantum chemistry, whose research interests are quantum systems control.
This book shows how Bohmian mechanics overcomes the need for a measurement postulate involving wave function collapse. The measuring process plays a very important role in quantum mechanics. It has been widely analyzed within the Copenhagen approach through the Born and von Neumann postulates, with later extension due to Lüders. In contrast, much less effort has been invested in the measurement theory within the Bohmian mechanics framework. The continuous measurement (sharp and fuzzy, or strong and weak) problem is considered here in this framework. The authors begin by generalizing the so-called Mensky approach, which is based on restricted path integral through quantum corridors. The measuring system is then considered to be an open quantum system following a stochastic Schrödinger equation. Quantum stochastic trajectories (in the Bohmian sense) and their role in basic quantum processes are discussed in detail. The decoherence process is thereby described in terms of classical trajectories issuing from the violation of the noncrossing rule of quantum trajectories.
This second volume of Howard Carmichael’s work continues the development of the methods used in quantum optics to treat open quantum systems and their fluctuations. Its early chapters build upon the phase-space methods introduced in Volume 1. Written on a level suitable for debut researchers or students in an advanced course in quantum optics, or a course in quantum mechanics or statistical physics that deals with open quantum systems.