Yuma Totani assesses the historical significance of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) - commonly called the Tokyo trial - established as the eastern counterpart of the Nuremberg trial in the immediate aftermath of World War II.
This book investigates the political context and intentions behind the trialling of Japanese war criminals in the wake of World War Two. After the Second World War in Asia, the victorious Allies placed around 5,700 Japanese on trial for war crimes. Ostensibly crafted to bring perpetrators to justice, the trials intersected in complex ways with the great issues of the day. They were meant to finish off the business of World War Two and to consolidate United States hegemony over Japan in the Pacific, but they lost impetus as Japan morphed into an ally of the West in the Cold War. Embattled colonial powers used the trials to bolster their authority against nationalist revolutionaries, but they found the principles of international humanitarian law were sharply at odds with the inequalities embodied in colonialism. Within nationalist movements, local enmities often overshadowed the reckoning with Japan. And hovering over the trials was the critical question: just what was justice for the Japanese in a world where all sides had committed atrocities?
This comparative account of civilian experiences of aerial bombing in World War II Britain and Japan reveals the universality of total war.
This third volume in the RIPAR series seeks to translate the Western concept of reconciliation into a universal and thus non-Western idiom. It unmasks some of the long-held and unresolved injustices in Australasia and the Asian-Pacific region. The volume focuses on promising examples of reconciliation processes and practices. These include comparative case study analyses e.g. from Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Korea, Indonesia, China, Japan and from New Zealand and Australia as well as the U.S. and Germany. The contributions demonstrate the potential of translating reconciliation into a non-Western idiom. Written by highly reputed experts from related research fields, the articles demonstrate how the past still exercises a pervasive influence over the present, and also point out the ways in which reconciliation may serve as a transformative tool in war and post-war societies as they make the transition to a renewed collective identity. A perennial challenge is to ensure that a tragic past does not determine the future. Asia, so often seen from a Eurocentric perspective as exotic, other and different, is now manifestly an economic and political powerhouse – shaped by the West, it is now playing its part in shaping the West. Asia’s destiny, its aspirations for just dealings among its neighbors, for the unmasking and resolution of long-held historical injustices from the past, for its sometimes tentative groping toward practices of reconciliation rather than conflict: all these efforts have consequences not just for the Asian nations but for the entire international community.
An examination of the intertwined lives and writings of a group of prominent twentieth-century Jewish thinkers who experienced exile and migration Exile, Statelessness, and Migration explores the intertwined lives, careers, and writings of a group of prominent Jewish intellectuals during the mid-twentieth century—in particular, Theodor Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin, Isaiah Berlin, Albert Hirschman, and Judith Shklar, as well as Hans Kelsen, Emmanuel Levinas, Gershom Scholem, and Leo Strauss. Informed by their Jewish identity and experiences of being outsiders, these thinkers produced one of the most brilliant and effervescent intellectual movements of modernity. Political philosopher Seyla Benhabib’s starting point is that these thinkers faced migration, statelessness, and exile because of their Jewish origins, even if they did not take positions on specifically Jewish issues personally. The sense of belonging and not belonging, of being “eternally half-other,” led them to confront essential questions: What does it mean for the individual to be an equal citizen and to wish to retain one’s ethnic, cultural, and religious differences, or perhaps even to rid oneself of these differences altogether in modernity? Benhabib isolates four themes in their works: dilemmas of belonging and difference; exile, political voice, and loyalty; legality and legitimacy; and pluralism and the problem of judgment. Surveying the work of influential intellectuals, Exile, Statelessness, and Migration recovers the valuable plurality of their Jewish voices and develops their universal insights in the face of the crises of this new century.
This book charts the vicissitudes of a rural community of papermakers in Sichuan. The process of transforming bamboo into paper involves production-related and social skills, as well as the everyday skills that allowed these papermakers to survive in an era of tumultuous change. The Chinese revolution—understood as a series of interconnected political, social, and technological transformations—was, Jacob Eyferth argues, as much about the redistribution of skill, knowledge, and technical control as it was about the redistribution of land and political power. The larger context for this study is the “rural-urban divide”: the institutional, social, and economic cleavages that separate rural people from urbanites. This book traces the changes in the distribution of knowledge that led to a massive transfer of technical control from villages to cities, from primary producers to managerial elites, and from women to men. It asks how a vision of rural people as unskilled has affected their place in the body politic and contributed to their disenfranchisement. By viewing skill as a contested resource, subject to distribution struggles, it addresses the issue of how revolution, state-making, and marketization have changed rural China.
Since the 1950s, Abe Kobo (1924âe"1993) has achieved an international reputation for his surreal or grotesque brand of avant-garde literature. From his early forays into science fiction to his more mature psychological novels and films, and finally the complicated experimental works produced near the end of his career, Abe weaves together a range of âeoevoicesâe : the styles of science and the language of literary forms. In Abeâe(tm)s oeuvre, this stylistic interplay links questions of language and subjectivity with issues of national identity and technological development in a way that ultimately aspires to become the catalyst for an artistic revolution. While recognizing the disruptions such a revolution might entail, Abeâe(tm)s texts embrace these disjunctions as a way of realizing radical new possibilities beyond everyday experience and everyday values. By arguing that the crisis of identity and postwar anomie in Abeâe(tm)s works is inseparable from the need to Âmarshal these different scientific and literary voices, Christopher Bolton explores how this reconciliation of ideas and dialects is for Abe part of the process whereby texts and individuals form themselvesâe"a search for identity that must take place at the level of the self and society at large.
In Late Imperial China control of the weather became an integral part of local government. This study looks at rainmaking activities organised or conducted by local officials under the Qing dynasty.
This study revolves around the career of Kobayashi Hideo (1902 1983), one of the seminal figures in the history of modern Japanese literary criticism, whose interpretive vision was forged amidst the cultural and ideological crises that dominated intellectual discourse between the 1920s and the 1940s. Although his interweaving of aesthetics and ideology exhibited elements of both resistance and complicity, his critical ethos served ultimately to undergird his wartime fascist stance by encouraging acquiescence to authority, championing patriotism, and calling for more vigorous thought control.
Buddhism in medieval Korea is characterized as “State Protection Buddhism,” a religion whose primary purpose was to rally support (supernatural and popular) for and legitimate the state. In this view, the state used Buddhism to engender compliance with its goals. A closer look, however, reveals that Buddhism was a canvas on which people projected many religious and secular concerns and desires. This study is an attempt to specify Buddhism’s place in Koryo and to ascertain to what extent and in what areas Buddhism functioned as a state religion. Was state support the main reason for Buddhism’s dominance in Koryo? How actively did the state seek to promote religious ideals? What was the strength of Buddhism as an institution and the nature of its relationship to the state? What role did Confucianism, the other state ideology, play in Koryo? This study argues that Buddhism provided most of the symbols and rituals, and some of the beliefs, that constructed an aura of legitimacy, but that there was no single ideological system underlying the Koryo dynasty’s legitimating strategies.
South Korea is home to one of the most vibrant evangelical Protestant communities in the world. This book investigates the meanings ofâe"and the reasons behindâe"an intriguing aspect of contemporary South Korean evangelicalism: the intense involvement of middle-class women. Drawing upon extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Seoul that explores the relevance of gender and womenâe(tm)s experiences to Korean evangelicalism, Kelly H. Chong not only helps provide a clearer picture of the evangelical movementâe(tm)s success in South Korea, but interrogates the global question of contemporary womenâe(tm)s attraction to religious traditionalisms. In highlighting the growing disjunction between the forces of social transformation that are rapidly liberalizing modern Korean society, and a social system that continues to uphold key patriarchal structures on both societal and familial levels, Chong relates womenâe(tm)s religious involvement to the contradictions of South Koreaâe(tm)s recent socio-cultural changes and complex engagement with modernity. By focusing on the ways in which womenâe(tm)s religious participation constitutesâe"both spiritually and institutionallyâe"an important part of their effort to negotiate the problems and dilemmas of contemporary family and gender relations, this book explores the contradictory significance of evangelical beliefs and practices for women, which simultaneously opens up possibilities for gender negotiation/resistance, and for womenâe(tm)s redomestication.
This title explores Hyakken's fiction and essays written during Japan's prewar years and investigates the intersection of his literature with the surroundings of the time.
This volume focuses on tropes of visuality and gender to reflect on shifting understandings of the significance of Chineseness, modernity, and Chinese modernity. Through detailed readings of narrative works by eight authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the study identifies three distinct constellations of visual concerns corresponding to the late imperial, mid-twentieth century, and contemporary periods, respectively.
The main theme of this book is the interaction between two âeoeplaces,âe China and Guanzhong, the capital area of several dynasties. It addresses such questions as What do we mean by âeoelocalâe ? Did the inhabitants of a locality believe that being âeoelocalâe required them to assume a certain identity? If so, how did they talk and write about it? Were there spatial and temporal differences in the representation of locales? This work examines how Guanzhong literati conceptualized three sets of relations: central/regional, âeoeofficialâe /âeoeunofficial,âe and national/local. It further traces the formation over the last millennium of the imperial state of a critical communal self-consciousness, the role of this consciousness in constructing a local identity and promoting an âeoeunofficialâe space for nonofficial elite activism, and the effect of the presence (or absence) of this consciousness on literati views of central-Âregional relationships. The issue here is not whether there can be a shared national culture, but whether this culture can be perceived as having regional variations and therefore contributing to the formation of a local identity.
"The author argues that the resilience of these factories has as much to do with how authority is defined and exercised and how people interact and cooperate as it does with the ability to generate profits. How social capital was deployed and replenished at critical moments was central to the eventual rise and consolidation of these enterprises as effective, robust institutions. Without high levels of mutual respect, trust, and cooperation, company leaders would have found it nearly impossible to improve their firms' productivity, workplace stability, and long-term viability."--BOOK JACKET.