In the current world disorder, security is on everyone’s lips. But what is security from a cross-cultural perspective? How is it imagined and experienced by people on the ground? Crucially, what visions of the future are at stake in people’s potentially divergent concerns with security: what, and when, is the time of security? Exploring diverse notions and experiences of time involved in security practices across the globe, this volume brings together a selection of international scholars who conduct ethnographic research in a broad ambit of securitized contexts – from the experience of Palestinian detainees in Israel or forms of popular violence in Bolivia, to efforts to normalize social relations in post-conflict Yugoslavia and ways of imagining threat in left-radical protest movements in Northern Europe. Interrogating recent debates about the role of "securitization" in contemporary politics, the book paves the way for novel forms of security analysis at the crossroads between anthropology and political science, focusing on the comparative study of the temporalities of securitization in a multi-polar world. Offering a pioneering synthesis, the book will be of interest not only to anthropologists, but also to students and scholars in political science and the growing field of Security Studies in International Relations.
Ein grundlegendes Element unserer Kultur ist das Spiel. Der Mensch ist ein Spieler - und ohne seine Lust und Fähigkeit zum Spielen hätten sich ganze Bereiche seiner Kultur nicht entwickelt: die Dichtung, das Recht, die Wissenschaft, die bildende Kunst, die Philosophie und viele andere. Johan Huizinga, der grosse holländische Historiker und Kulturphilosoph, hat in diesem Buch eine Theorie der Kultur entworfen, in der er dem Denker (homo sapiens) und dem Tätigen (homo faber) den Menschen als Spieler (homo ludens) an die Seite stellt. Ein klassischer Essay der Kulturgeschichte und Anthropologie.
Conveniently structured into five sections, The Routledge Research Companion to Outsourcing Security offers an overview of the different ways in which states have come to rely on private contractors to support interventions. Part One puts into context the evolution of outsourcing in Western states that are actively involved in expeditionary operations as well as the rise of the commercial security sector in Afghanistan. To explain the various theoretical frameworks that students can use to study security/military outsourcing, Part Two outlines the theories behind security outsourcing. Part Three examines the law and ethics surrounding the outsourcing of security by focusing on how states might monitor contractor behaviour, hold them to account and prosecute them where their behaviour warrants such action. The drivers, politics and consequences of outsourcing foreign policy are covered in Part Four, which is divided into two sections: section one is concerned with armed contractors (providing the provision of private security with the main driver being a capability gap on the part of the military/law enforcement agencies), and section two looks at military contractors (supporting military operations right back to antiquity, less controversial politically and often technologically driven). The final Part takes into consideration emerging perspectives, exploring areas such as gender, feminist methodology, maritime security and the impact of private security on the military profession. This book will be of much interest to students of military and security studies, foreign policy and International Relations.
This volume offers an overview of the methodologies of research in the field of military studies. As an institution relying on individuals and resources provided by society, the military has been studied by scholars from a wide range of disciplines: political science, sociology, history, psychology, anthropology, economics and administrative studies. The methodological approaches in these disciplines vary from computational modelling of conflicts and surveys of military performance, to the qualitative study of military stories from the battlefield and veterans experiences. Rapidly developing technological facilities (more powerful hardware, more sophisticated software, digitalization of documents and pictures) render the methodologies in use more dynamic than ever. The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies offers a comprehensive and dynamic overview of these developments as they emerge in the many approaches to military studies. The chapters in this Handbook are divided over four parts: starting research, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, and finalizing a study, and every chapter starts with the description of a well-published study illustrating the methodological issues that will be dealt with in that particular chapter. Hence, this Handbook not only provides methodological know-how, but also offers a useful overview of military studies from a variety of research perspectives. This Handbook will be of much interest to students of military studies, security and war studies, civil-military relations, military sociology, political science and research methods in general.
Security Studies is the most comprehensive textbook available on security studies. It gives students a detailed overview of the major theoretical approaches, key themes and most significant issues within security studies. Part 1 explores the main theoretical approaches currently used within the field from realism to international political sociology. Part 2 explains the central concepts underpinning contemporary debates from the security dilemma to terrorism. Part 3 presents an overview of the institutional security architecture currently influencing world politics using international, regional and global levels of analysis. Part 4 examines some of the key contemporary challenges to global security from the arms trade to energy security. Part 5 discusses the future of security. Security Studies provides a valuable teaching tool for undergraduates and MA students by collecting these related strands of the field together into a single coherent textbook.
Moderne Gesellschaften beruhen auf dem Selbstverständnis, Gewalt einzuhegen, zugleich sind das Recht und die Pflicht zur Gewaltanwendung Grundprinzipien moderner Staatlichkeit. Gewalt, Ordnung und Staatlichkeit sind demnach konstitutiv aufeinander bezogen, doch ihr prekäres Verhältnis erscheint zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts umstrittener denn je. Konzepte wie Rettungsfolter, gerechte Kriege, Ausnahme oder Sicherheit verweisen zugleich auf neue Rationalitäten staatlicher Gewalt. Der Band bietet interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf historische Kontinuitäten und Brüche staatlicher Neuordnungen von Gewalt in der Gegenwart. Mit Beiträgen von David Garland, Christian Geulen, Sven Kramer, Susanne Krasmann, Alf Lüdtke, Jürgen Martschukat, Andrew W. Neal, Günter Riederer, Ruth Stanley und Anja Feth, Frank Schumacher, Klaus Weinhauer sowie einen bisher im Deutschen unveröffentlichten Text von Judith Butler.
This new textbook surveys new and emergent methods for doing research in critical security studies, thereby filling a large gap in the literature of this emerging field. New or critical security studies is growing as a field, but still lacks a clear methodology; the diverse range of the main foci of study (culture, practices, language, or bodies) means that there is little coherence or conversation between these four schools or approaches. In this ground-breaking collection of fresh and emergent voices, new methods in critical security studies are explored from multiple perspectives, providing practical examples of successful research design and methodologies. Drawing upon their own experiences and projects, thirty-three authors address the following turns over the course of six comprehensive sections: Part I: Research Design Part II: The Ethnographic Turn Part III: The Practice Turn Part IV: The Discursive Turn Part V: The Corporeal Turn Part VI: The Material Turn This book will be essential reading for upper-level students and researchers in the field of critical security studies, and of much interest to students of sociology, ethnography and IR.
This book examines the methodology of qualitative research in military studies. Since the end of the Cold War, the number of studies on military and society has grown substantially in substance, size and impact. However, only a tiny part of this bibliography deals in depth with the research methods used, especially in relation to qualitative methods. The data that form the basis of the researchers' analyses are often presented as if they were immediately available, rather than as a product of interaction between the researcher and those who participated in the research. Comprising essays by international scholars, the volume discusses the methodological questions raised by the use of qualitative research methodology in military settings. On the one hand, it focuses on the specificity of the military as a social context for research: the authors single out and discuss the particular field effects produced by institutional arrangements, norms and practices of the military. On the other, the authors proceed in an empirical manner: all methodological questions are addressed with regard to concrete situations of field research. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, research methods, sociology, anthropology, war and conflict studies and security studies in general.
First published in 1979. Sociology flourished in China during the 1930s and 1940s but with the establishment of the People's Republic of China, controversies arose over the place of sociology in the process of socialist construction. Siu-lun Wong analyses the reasons for this change in the fortune of sociological studies in China and examines it in relation to the country's contemporary political system.
A Companion to Moral Anthropology is the first collective consideration of the anthropological dimensions of morals, morality, and ethics. Original essays by international experts explore the various currents, approaches, and issues in this important new discipline, examining topics such as the ethnography of moralities, the study of moral subjectivities, and the exploration of moral economies. Investigates the central legacies of moral anthropology, the formation of moral facts and values, the context of local moralities, and the frontiers between moralities, politics, humanitarianism Features contributions from pioneers in the field of moral anthropology, as well as international experts in related fields such as moral philosophy, moral psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroethics
What are the potential contributions of anthropology to the study of police? Even beyond the methodological particularities and geographic breadth of cultural anthropology, there are a set of conceptual and analytical traditions that have much to bring to broader scholarship in police studies. Including original and international contributions from both senior and emerging scholars, this pioneering book represents a foundational document for a burgeoning field of study: the anthropology of police. The chapters in this volume open up the question of police in new ways: mining the disciplinary legacies of anthropology in order to discover new conceptual tools, methods, and pedagogies; reworking relationships between "police," "public," and "researcher" in ways that open up new avenues for exploration at the same time as they articulate new demands; and retracing a hauntology that, through interactions with individuals and collectives, constitutes a body politic through the figure of police. Illustrating the various ways that anthropology enables a reassessment of the police/violence relationship with a broad consideration of the human stakes at the center, this book will be of interest to criminologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and the broad interdisciplinary field invested in the study of policing, order-making, and governance.
Diese Einführung in das junge Feld der transkulturellen Politischen Theorie richtet sich an Studierende und Lehrende der Politikwissenschaft und insbesondere der Politischen Theorie. Dabei werden in prinzipiell voneinander unabhängigen, aber aufeinander verweisenden Kapiteln spezifische Fragestellungen des Feldes anhand von Ausgangsproblemen erarbeitet. Da transkulturell orientierte Politische Theorie oftmals mit naiven Annahmen konfrontiert ist, die es zu differenzieren und relativieren gilt, wird genau das zum didaktischen Prinzip erhoben: Am Anfang jedes Kapitels wird eine intuitiv scheinbar richtige Ausgangsbehauptung thematisiert, die im Verlauf des Kapitels hinterfragt wird.
Out of War draws on Mariane C. Ferme’s three decades of ethnographic engagements to examine the physical and psychological aftereffects of the harms of Sierra Leone's civil war. Ferme analyzes the relationship between violence, trauma, and the political imagination, focusing on “war times”—the different qualities of temporality arising from war. She considers the persistence of precolonial and colonial figures of sovereignty re-elaborated in the context of war, and the circulation of rumors and neologisms that freeze in time collective anxieties linked to particular phases of the conflict (or “chronotopes”). Beyond the expected traumas of war, Ferme explores the breaks in the intergenerational transmission of farming and hunting techniques, and the lethal effects of remembering experienced traumas and forgetting local knowledge. In the context of massive population displacements and humanitarian interventions, this ethnography traces strategies of survival and material dwelling, and the juridical creation of new figures of victimhood, where colonial and postcolonial legacies are reinscribed in neoliberal projects of decentralization and individuation.
This book rethinks the key concepts of International Relations by drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu. The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu's vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible analysis of what Bourdieu-inspired IR might look like. This book provides the answer. It offers an introduction to Bourdieu's thinking to a wider IR audience, challenges key assumptions, which currently structure IR scholarship – and provides an original, theoretical restatement of some of the core concepts in the field. The book brings together a select group of leading IR scholars who draw on both theoretical and empirical insights from Bourdieu. Each chapter covers one central concept in IR: Methodology, Knowledge, Power, Strategy, Security, Culture, Gender, Norms, Sovereignty and Integration. The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory.
This volume presents new theoretical approaches, methodologies, subject pools, and topics in the field of environmental anthropology. Environmental anthropologists are increasingly focusing on self-reflection - not just on themselves and their impacts on environmental research, but also on the reflexive qualities of their subjects, and the extent to which these individuals are questioning their own environmental behavior. Here, contributors confront the very notion of "natural resources" in granting non-human species their subjectivity and arguing for deeper understanding of "nature," and "wilderness" beyond the label of "ecosystem services." By engaging in interdisciplinary efforts, these anthropologists present new ways for their colleagues, subjects, peers and communities to understand the causes of, and alternatives to environmental destruction. This book demonstrates that environmental anthropology has moved beyond the construction of rural, small group theory, entering into a mode of solution-based methodologies and interdisciplinary theories for understanding human-environmental interactions. It is focused on post-rural existence, health and environmental risk assessment, on the realm of alternative actions, and emphasizes the necessary steps towards preventing environmental crisis.
This book presents a social scientific reading of the challenges of memory and recovery in times of crisis. Drawing on different interpretations of what constitutes ‘crisis’, this collection uses lenses of economics, identity and commemoration, to question how memory and recovery is being constituted through larger discourses of political claims of moving forward, healing and identity. Memory and Recovery in Times of Crisis examines how memory is dis- or re-interred through social processes and further, how recovered memories are challenged or legitimized. It also presents a set of questions that will stimulate further reflections on what kind of role understandings of memory of crisis can play in recovery. Given the world we find ourselves living in in 2017 – a world subject to multiple, intersecting crises – how we understand the dynamics of memory and recovery is a pressing issue indeed. This book will appeal to both scholars and students of anthropology and sociology.
Die vielfältigen Transformationsprozesse im Zuge der Globalisierung stellen herkömmliche politische, gesellschaftliche und kulturelle Grenzen zunehmend in Frage. Die erhöhte Mobilität von Menschen, Kapital, Gütern, Bildern und Informationen und die durch Telekommunikationstechnologien ermöglichte dichte Vernetzung von Individuen und Organisationen über nationalstaatliche Grenzen hinweg lassen die Globalisierung als Epoche der Grenzüberschreitungen erscheinen. Damit wird jedoch keine entgrenzte Weltgesellschaft eingeläutet; eher gehen die Veränderungen althergebrachter Grenzen mit neuen Grenzziehungen und der Verschiebung ihrer Bedeutung einher. Die Publikation widmet sich dem Spannungsfeld zwischen Grenzüberschreitungen und Grenzverschiebungen in einer globalisierten Welt, das seit einigen Jahren ins Zentrum des Interesses vieler Disziplinen gerückt ist, und dabei die Chancen und Risiken, die diese Prozesse bergen, problematisieren. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Fragen der Toleranz, Religion, Rechtsstaatlichkeit, Migration, Staatsbürgerschaft sowie der Transformation von familiären Bindungen sowie individuellen und kollektiven Identitäten und deren Auswirkungen auf die Herstellung von Solidarität und Ausschluss. Besondere Beachtung wird dem aussereuropäischen Kontext und der Geschlechterperspektive geschenkt. Es wird angestrebt, diese komplexen und hochaktuellen Fragen aus der Sicht der verschiedenen Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften sowie der Rechtswissenschaft zu erhellen.
The study of global governance has often led separate lives within the respective camps of International Political Economy and Foucauldian Studies. Guzzini and Neumann combine these to look at an increasingly global politics with a growing number of agents, recognising the emergence of a global polity.
In most Western developed countries, adult life is increasingly organized on the basis of short-term work contracts and reduced social security funds. In this context it seems that producing efficient job-seekers and employees becomes the main aim of educational programs for the next generation. Through case studies of young people from urban and countryside marginalized populations in Germany, USA and Brazil, this book investigates emerging educational practices and takes a critical stance towards what can be seen as neoliberal educational politics. It investigates how mediating devices such as CVs, school reports, school files, photos and narratives shape the ways in which those marginalized students reflect about their past as well as imagine their future. By building on process philosophy and time theory, post-structuralism, as well as on Vygotsky's psychological theory, the analysis differentiates between two discrete modes of human development: development of concrete skills (potential development) and development of new societal relations (virtual development, which is at the same time individual and collective). The book outlines an innovative relational account of learning and human development which can prove of particular importance for the education of marginalized students in today's globalized world.