This book is about toric topology, a new area of mathematics that emerged at the end of the 1990s on the border of equivariant topology, algebraic and symplectic geometry, combinatorics, and commutative algebra. It has quickly grown into a very active area with many links to other areas of mathematics, and continues to attract experts from different fields. The key players in toric topology are moment-angle manifolds, a class of manifolds with torus actions defined in combinatorial terms. Construction of moment-angle manifolds relates to combinatorial geometry and algebraic geometry of toric varieties via the notion of a quasitoric manifold. Discovery of remarkable geometric structures on moment-angle manifolds led to important connections with classical and modern areas of symplectic, Lagrangian, and non-Kaehler complex geometry. A related categorical construction of moment-angle complexes and polyhedral products provides for a universal framework for many fundamental constructions of homotopical topology. The study of polyhedral products is now evolving into a separate subject of homotopy theory. A new perspective on torus actions has also contributed to the development of classical areas of algebraic topology, such as complex cobordism. This book includes many open problems and is addressed to experts interested in new ideas linking all the subjects involved, as well as to graduate students and young researchers ready to enter this beautiful new area.
This volume consists of introductory lectures on the topics in the new and rapidly developing area of toric homotopy theory, and its applications to the current research in configuration spaces and braids, as well as to more applicable mathematics such as fr-codes and robot motion planning. The book starts intertwining homotopy theoretical and combinatorial ideas within the remits of toric topology and illustrates an attempt to classify in a combinatorial way polytopes known as fullerenes, which are important objects in quantum physics, quantum chemistry and nanotechnology. Toric homotopy theory is then introduced as a further development of toric topology, which describes properties of Davis–Januszkiewicz spaces, moment-angle complexes and their generalizations to polyhedral products. The book also displays the current research on configuration spaces, braids, the theory of limits over the category of presentations and the theory of fr-codes. As an application to robotics, the book surveys topological problems relevant to the motion planning problem of robotics and includes new results and constructions, which enrich the emerging area of topological robotics. The book is at research entry level addressing the core components in homotopy theory and their important applications in the sciences and thus suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Contents: Toric Homotopy Theory (Stephen Theriault)Fullerenes, Polytopes and Toric Topology (Victor M Buchstaber and Nikolay Yu Erokhovets)Around Braids (Vladimir Vershinin)Higher Limits, Homology Theories and fr-Codes (Sergei O Ivanov and Roman Mikhailov)Configuration Spaces and Robot Motion Planning Algorithms (Michael Farber)Cellular Stratified Spaces (Dai Tamaki) Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers interested in homotopy theory and its applications in the sciences. Keywords: Toric Topology;Toric Homotopy;Configuration Space;Stratified Spaces;Braid Group;Fullerene;Polytope;Virtual Braid Group;Thompson Group;Robotics;Motion PlanningReview: Key Features: The first book in the area of toric homotopy theory consisting of introductory lectures on the topics and their applications to fr-codes and robot motion planning
Pattern Recognition on Oriented Matroids covers a range of innovative problems in combinatorics, poset and graph theories, optimization, and number theory that constitute a far-reaching extension of the arsenal of committee methods in pattern recognition. The groundwork for the modern committee theory was laid in the mid-1960s, when it was shown that the familiar notion of solution to a feasible system of linear inequalities has ingenious analogues which can serve as collective solutions to infeasible systems. A hierarchy of dialects in the language of mathematics, for instance, open cones in the context of linear inequality systems, regions of hyperplane arrangements, and maximal covectors (or topes) of oriented matroids, provides an excellent opportunity to take a fresh look at the infeasible system of homogeneous strict linear inequalities – the standard working model for the contradictory two-class pattern recognition problem in its geometric setting. The universal language of oriented matroid theory considerably simplifies a structural and enumerative analysis of applied aspects of the infeasibility phenomenon. The present book is devoted to several selected topics in the emerging theory of pattern recognition on oriented matroids: the questions of existence and applicability of matroidal generalizations of committee decision rules and related graph-theoretic constructions to oriented matroids with very weak restrictions on their structural properties; a study (in which, in particular, interesting subsequences of the Farey sequence appear naturally) of the hierarchy of the corresponding tope committees; a description of the three-tope committees that are the most attractive approximation to the notion of solution to an infeasible system of linear constraints; an application of convexity in oriented matroids as well as blocker constructions in combinatorial optimization and in poset theory to enumerative problems on tope committees; an attempt to clarify how elementary changes (one-element reorientations) in an oriented matroid affect the family of its tope committees; a discrete Fourier analysis of the important family of critical tope committees through rank and distance relations in the tope poset and the tope graph; the characterization of a key combinatorial role played by the symmetric cycles in hypercube graphs. Contents Oriented Matroids, the Pattern Recognition Problem, and Tope Committees Boolean Intervals Dehn–Sommerville Type Relations Farey Subsequences Blocking Sets of Set Families, and Absolute Blocking Constructions in Posets Committees of Set Families, and Relative Blocking Constructions in Posets Layers of Tope Committees Three-Tope Committees Halfspaces, Convex Sets, and Tope Committees Tope Committees and Reorientations of Oriented Matroids Topes and Critical Committees Critical Committees and Distance Signals Symmetric Cycles in the Hypercube Graphs
Mathematicians wanting to get into the field ... will find a very well written and encyclopaedic account of the mathematics which was needed in, and was developed from, what now might be termed classical mirror symmetry. --Bulletin of the LMS The book is highly recommended for everyone who wants to learn about the fascinating recent interplay between physics and mathematics. --Mathematical Reviews Mirror symmetry began when theoretical physicists made some astonishing predictions about rational curves on quintic hypersurfaces in four-dimensional projective space. Understanding the mathematics behind these predictions has been a substantial challenge. This book is a completely comprehensive monograph on mirror symmetry, covering the original observations by the physicists through the most recent progress made to date. Subjects discussed include toric varieties, Hodge theory, Kahler geometry, moduli of stable maps, Calabi-Yau manifolds, quantum cohomology, Gromov-Witten invariants, and the mirror theorem.
Toric varieties form a beautiful and accessible part of modern algebraic geometry. This book covers the standard topics in toric geometry; a novel feature is that each of the first nine chapters contains an introductory section on the necessary background material in algebraic geometry. Other topics covered include quotient constructions, vanishing theorems, equivariant cohomology, GIT quotients, the secondary fan, and the minimal model program for toric varieties. The subject lends itself to rich examples reflected in the 134 illustrations included in the text. The book also explores connections with commutative algebra and polyhedral geometry, treating both polytopes and their unbounded cousins, polyhedra. There are appendices on the history of toric varieties and the computational tools available to investigate nontrivial examples in toric geometry. Readers of this book should be familiar with the material covered in basic graduate courses in algebra and topology, and to a somewhat lesser degree, complex analysis. In addition, the authors assume that the reader has had some previous experience with algebraic geometry at an advanced undergraduate level. The book will be a useful reference for graduate students and researchers who are interested in algebraic geometry, polyhedral geometry, and toric varieties.
This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the Calabi-Yau case. The book concludes with the first ``naive'' Givental computation, which is a mysterious mathematical justification of the computation of Candelas, et al.
This research monograph presents many new results in a rapidly developing area of great current interest. Guillemin, Ginzburg, and Karshon show that the underlying topological thread in the computation of invariants of G-manifolds is a consequence of a linearization theorem involving equivariant cobordisms. The book incorporates a novel approach and showcases exciting new research. During the last 20 years, 'localization' has been one of the dominant themes in the area of equivariant differential geometry. Typical results are the Duistermaat-Heckman theory, the Berline-Vergne-Atiyah-Bott localization theorem in equivariant de Rham theory, and the 'quantization commutes with reduction' theorem and its various corollaries. To formulate the idea that these theorems are all consequences of a single result involving equivariant cobordisms, the authors have developed a cobordism theory that allows the objects to be non-compact manifolds.A key ingredient in this non-compact cobordism is an equivariant-geometrical object which they call an 'abstract moment map'. This is a natural and important generalization of the notion of a moment map occurring in the theory of Hamiltonian dynamics. The book contains a number of appendices that include introductions to proper group-actions on manifolds, equivariant cohomology, Spin${^\mathrm{c}}$-structures, and stable complex structures. It is geared toward graduate students and research mathematicians interested in differential geometry. It is also suitable for topologists, Lie theorists, combinatorists, and theoretical physicists. Prerequisite is some expertise in calculus on manifolds and basic graduate-level differential geometry.
Cluster algebras, introduced by Fomin and Zelevinsky in 2001, are commutative rings with unit and no zero divisors equipped with a distinguished family of generators (cluster variables) grouped in overlapping subsets (clusters) of the same cardinality (the rank of the cluster algebra) connected by exchange relations. Examples of cluster algebras include coordinate rings of many algebraic varieties that play a prominent role in representation theory, invariant theory, the study of total positivity, etc. The theory of cluster algebras has witnessed a spectacular growth, first and foremost due to the many links to a wide range of subjects including representation theory, discrete dynamical systems, Teichmuller theory, and commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry. This book is the first devoted to cluster algebras. After presenting the necessary introductory material about Poisson geometry and Schubert varieties in the first two chapters, the authors introduce cluster algebras and prove their main properties in Chapter 3. This chapter can be viewed as a primer on the theory of cluster algebras. In the remaining chapters, the emphasis is made on geometric aspects of the cluster algebra theory, in particular on its relations to Poisson geometry and to the theory of integrable systems.
In the 19 years which passed since the first edition was published, several important developments have taken place in the theory of surfaces. The most sensational one concerns the differentiable structure of surfaces. Twenty years ago very little was known about differentiable structures on 4-manifolds, but in the meantime Donaldson on the one hand and Seiberg and Witten on the other hand, have found, inspired by gauge theory, totally new invariants. Strikingly, together with the theory explained in this book these invariants yield a wealth of new results about the differentiable structure of algebraic surfaces. Other developments include the systematic use of nef-divisors (in ac cordance with the progress made in the classification of higher dimensional algebraic varieties), a better understanding of Kahler structures on surfaces, and Reider's new approach to adjoint mappings. All these developments have been incorporated in the present edition, though the Donaldson and Seiberg-Witten theory only by way of examples. Of course we use the opportunity to correct some minor mistakes, which we ether have discovered ourselves or which were communicated to us by careful readers to whom we are much obliged.
Persistence theory emerged in the early 2000s as a new theory in the area of applied and computational topology. This book provides a broad and modern view of the subject, including its algebraic, topological, and algorithmic aspects. It also elaborates on applications in data analysis. The level of detail of the exposition has been set so as to keep a survey style, while providing sufficient insights into the proofs so the reader can understand the mechanisms at work. The book is organized into three parts. The first part is dedicated to the foundations of persistence and emphasizes its connection to quiver representation theory. The second part focuses on its connection to applications through a few selected topics. The third part provides perspectives for both the theory and its applications. The book can be used as a text for a course on applied topology or data analysis.
Gathers results in pure and applied algebra, including algebraic topology from researchers around the globe.
Mirror symmetry is a phenomenon arising in string theory in which two very different manifolds give rise to equivalent physics. Such a correspondence has significant mathematical consequences, the most familiar of which involves the enumeration of holomorphic curves inside complex manifolds by solving differential equations obtained from a ``mirror'' geometry. The inclusion of D-brane states in the equivalence has led to further conjectures involving calibrated submanifolds of the mirror pairs and new (conjectural) invariants of complex manifolds: the Gopakumar Vafa invariants. This book aims to give a single, cohesive treatment of mirror symmetry from both the mathematical and physical viewpoint. Parts 1 and 2 develop the necessary mathematical and physical background ``from scratch,'' and are intended for readers trying to learn across disciplines. The treatment is focussed, developing only the material most necessary for the task. In Parts 3 and 4 the physical and mathematical proofs of mirror symmetry are given. From the physics side, this means demonstrating that two different physical theories give isomorphic physics. Each physical theory can be described geometrically, and thus mirror symmetry gives rise to a ``pairing'' of geometries. The proof involves applying $R\leftrightarrow 1/R$ circle duality to the phases of the fields in the gauged linear sigma model. The mathematics proof develops Gromov-Witten theory in the algebraic setting, beginning with the moduli spaces of curves and maps, and uses localization techniques to show that certain hypergeometric functions encode the Gromov-Witten invariants in genus zero, as is predicted by mirror symmetry. Part 5 is devoted to advanced topics in mirror symmetry, including the role of D-branes in the context of mirror symmetry, and some of their applications in physics and mathematics: topological strings and large $N$ Chern-Simons theory; geometric engineering; mirror symmetry at higher genus; Gopakumar-Vafa invariants; and Kontsevich's formulation of the mirror phenomenon as an equivalence of categories. This book grew out of an intense, month-long course on mirror symmetry at Pine Manor College, sponsored by the Clay Mathematics Institute. The lecturers have tried to summarize this course in a coherent, unified text.
This volume deals with the theory of finite topological spaces and its relationship with the homotopy and simple homotopy theory of polyhedra. The interaction between their intrinsic combinatorial and topological structures makes finite spaces a useful tool for studying problems in Topology, Algebra and Geometry from a new perspective. In particular, the methods developed in this manuscript are used to study Quillen's conjecture on the poset of p-subgroups of a finite group and the Andrews-Curtis conjecture on the 3-deformability of contractible two-dimensional complexes. This self-contained work constitutes the first detailed exposition on the algebraic topology of finite spaces. It is intended for topologists and combinatorialists, but it is also recommended for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students with a modest knowledge of Algebraic Topology.
Research in string theory over the last several decades has yielded a rich interaction with algebraic geometry. In 1985, the introduction of Calabi-Yau manifolds into physics as a way to compactify ten-dimensional space-time has led to exciting cross-fertilization between physics and mathematics, especially with the discovery of mirror symmetry in 1989. A new string revolution in the mid-1990s brought the notion of branes to the forefront. As foreseen by Kontsevich, these turned out to have mathematical counterparts in the derived category of coherent sheaves on an algebraic variety and the Fukaya category of a symplectic manifold. This has led to exciting new work, including the Strominger-Yau-Zaslow conjecture, which used the theory of branes to propose a geometric basis for mirror symmetry, the theory of stability conditions on triangulated categories, and a physical basis for the McKay correspondence. These developments have led to a great deal of new mathematical work. One difficulty in understanding all aspects of this work is that it requires being able to speak two different languages, the language of string theory and the language of algebraic geometry. The 2002 Clay School on Geometry and String Theory set out to bridge this gap, and this monograph builds on the expository lectures given there to provide an up-to-date discussion including subsequent developments. A natural sequel to the first Clay monograph on Mirror Symmetry, it presents the new ideas coming out of the interactions of string theory and algebraic geometry in a coherent logical context. We hope it will allow students and researchers who are familiar with the language of one of the two fields to gain acquaintance with the language of the other. The book first introduces the notion of Dirichlet brane in the context of topological quantum field theories, and then reviews the basics of string theory. After showing how notions of branes arose in string theory, it turns to an introduction to the algebraic geometry, sheaf theory, and homological algebra needed to define and work with derived categories. The physical existence conditions for branes are then discussed and compared in the context of mirror symmetry, culminating in Bridgeland's definition of stability structures, and its applications to the McKay correspondence and quantum geometry. The book continues with detailed treatments of the Strominger-Yau-Zaslow conjecture, Calabi-Yau metrics and homological mirror symmetry, and discusses more recent physical developments. This book is suitable for graduate students and researchers with either a physics or mathematics background, who are interested in the interface between string theory and algebraic geometry.
In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark â€" a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic â€" defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark â€" the Riemann Hypothesis â€" that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows â€" subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many â€" the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof â€" and those who have been consumed by it.
This book presents the study of torus actions on topological spaces that is presented as a bridge connecting combinatorial and convex geometry with commutative and homological algebra, algebraic geometry, and topology. This established link helps in understanding the geometry and topology of a space with torus action by studying the combinatorics of the space of orbits. Conversely, subtle properties of a combinatorial object can be realized by interpreting it as the orbit structure for a proper manifold or as a complex acted on by a torus. The latter can be a symplectic manifold with Hamiltonian torus action, a toric variety or manifold, a subspace arrangement complement, etc., while the combinatorial objects include simplicial and cubical complexes, polytopes, and arrangements.This approach also provides a natural topological interpretation in terms of torus actions of many constructions from commutative and homological algebra used in combinatorics. The exposition centers around the theory of moment-angle complexes, providing an effective way to study invariants of triangulations by methods of equivariant topology. The book includes many new and well-known open problems and would be suitable as a textbook. It will be useful for specialists both in topology and in combinatorics and will help to establish even tighter connections between the subjects involved.
An introduction to abstract algebraic geometry, with the only prerequisites being results from commutative algebra, which are stated as needed, and some elementary topology. More than 400 exercises distributed throughout the book offer specific examples as well as more specialised topics not treated in the main text, while three appendices present brief accounts of some areas of current research. This book can thus be used as textbook for an introductory course in algebraic geometry following a basic graduate course in algebra. Robin Hartshorne studied algebraic geometry with Oscar Zariski and David Mumford at Harvard, and with J.-P. Serre and A. Grothendieck in Paris. He is the author of "Residues and Duality", "Foundations of Projective Geometry", "Ample Subvarieties of Algebraic Varieties", and numerous research titles.
What is "topological" about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-known topological insulators and superconductors and emphasizes the deep connections with quantum computation. It addresses key principles behind the classification of topological quantum phases and relevant mathematical concepts and discusses models of interacting and noninteracting topological systems, such as the torric code and the p-wave superconductor. The book also covers the basic properties of anyons, and aspects concerning the realization of topological states in solid state structures and cold atom systems. Quantum computation is also presented using a broad perspective, which includes fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics, such as Bell's theorem, basic concepts in the theory of computation, such as computational models and computational complexity, examples of quantum algorithms, and elements of classical and quantum information theory.
This book examines interactions of polyhedral discrete geometry and algebra. What makes this book unique is the presentation of several central results in all three areas of the exposition - from discrete geometry, to commutative algebra, and K-theory.

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