This book by two leading experts provides a comprehensive analysis of Turkey's relationship with the European Union, set in its regional and international context. It details the main approaches to this relationship by considering how issues of economics, migration, security, human rights and culture influence events and perspectives.
In 2005 the European Commission and the Turkish government started their investigation of the adaptation of Turkish legislation to European law. But public opinion remains sceptical and a thorough discussion among European and Turkish proponents is still needed. Apart from the many beliefs, ideals and prognoses that circulate about the past and future of Europe as well as Turkey, the negotiations continue and different scenarios and time-frames are being developed. In the end, it is the question of the otherness of Turkey to Europe that constitutes the core of the discussion and may offer the start of an answer. To put forward the arguments for and against Turkish accession to the European Union, the University Centre Saint-Ignatius Antwerp organised a two-day academic workshop held in June 2006 in Antwerp. This publication gathers together the opinions of Turkish and European scholars and diplomats about the socio-economic, cultural-religious and political arguments being used in the discussion.
European identity has always been in a state of construction. With the creation of the European Union, however, this construction now takes place within an institutional framework, introducing a number of new variables. Selcen .ner's Turkey and the European Union: The Question of European Identity is an in-depth analysis of the influence of these two entities on each others' identity as Europeans in a society of increasing social, political, and cultural connectedness. The mutual influence between Turks and Europeans gained significant momentum in 1999, when the European Union granted official candidate status to Turkey at that year's Helsinki Summit. Turkey's Europeanness is still being debated, despite the official stance that fulfilling the Copenhagen criteria and adopting the EU acquis are enough for being a full member of the EU. These debates have even lead to arguments between political elites of the European Union about their 'privileged partnership' with Turkey. When comparing the attitudes of the European Union towards Turkey versus those towards Central and Eastern Europe, one could argue that that 'return to Europe' discourse has accelerated the membership of the latter, but not the former. Currently Turkey is neither considered an 'other,' nor a member of the 'family.' Rather, Turkey is commonly relegated to the role of 'crucial neighbor' or 'strategic partner' by the political elites of the EU. .ner's study analyzes a series of interviews conducted with several members of the European Parliament and sheds serious light on the fact that discussions on Turkey's membership in terms of her Europeanness reveal countless ambiguities in defining European identity. It is clear that there is no common understanding or definition of European identity, even amongst political leaders in the EU who challenge Turkey's authenticity as a member of European society. Thus, Selcen .ner's Turkey and the European Union: The Question of European Identity argues that the position of Turkey vis-^-vis the European Union will set a compelling benchmark for European identity construction in the future.
European views on Turkey’s membership in the EU have been split between those in support of its full integration and those advocating a privileged partnership. To the extent that many of the latter proposals imply that Turkey will be partially integrated within Europe in certain areas, the question of Turkey’s accession is probably not about ‘if’, but about ‘how much’ integration there will be within the Union’s structures. The purpose of this book is not to offer a definitive response to this question. The book aims instead to examine the complexity of the issues pertaining to Turkey’s prospective EU membership by presenting several, often divergent, accounts of the political, security and socio-economic dimensions of the entire process. The book provides a forum for an exchange of views among distinguished scholars and researchers from different national backgrounds in order to contribute to the ongoing public discussion of Turkey’s accession. Sophisticated, informative and refreshing in its argumentation, the book provides an excellent overview of the complexities of Turkey’s accession to the EU membership. Professor Mustafa Aydin, TOBB University of Economics and Technology A refreshing view from the European periphery, an original mirror of the Union's central challenges. Professor Georges Prevelakis, University of Paris 1 – Panthéon-Sorbonne
This volume provides an up-to-date overview of relations between the EU and Turkey. Is Turkish EU membership still a realistic option today? How has this relationship evolved so far, and with what benefits for both sides? What are currently the main challenges to closer relations and cooperation? In a series of recently written contributions experts explain the core themes in EU-Turkish relations today. The resulting overall picture is one of ambivalence: Turkey and the EU have grown together in important ways, and both sides have benefited from this process. However, the process is neither linear nor irreversible, we find increasing tensions in this relationship, and it appears impossible at this time to predict how EU-Turkish relations will evolve even in the near future.
Annotation This book examines EU discourses on Turkey in the European Commission, European Parliament and three EU member states (France, Germany and Britain), to reveal the discursive construction of European identity through EU representations of Turkey. Based on a poststructuralist framework that conceptualizes identity as discursively constructed through difference, the book applies Critical Discourse Analysis to the analysis of texts and argues that there are multiple Europe(s) that are constructed in talks over the enlargement of Turkey, varying within and between different ideological, national and institutional contexts. The book discerns four main discourse topics over which these Europe(s) are constructed, corresponding to the conceptualization of Europe as a security community, as an upholder of democratic values, as a political project and as a cultural space. The book argues that Turkey constitutes a key case in exploring various discursive constructs of European identity, sincethe talks on Turkey pave the way for the construction of different versions of Europe in discourse.
The potential membership of Turkey to the European Union (EU) carries significant challenges for EU policymaking and integration, and this volume brings together academics from several disciplines, including international relations, economics, sociology, and public administration, to present a holistic picture of the economic dimension of the accession process. Assessing the current strengths and weaknesses of the Turkish candidacy, this study provides a historical overview of EU-Turkey economic relations, a comprehensive review of the EU-Turkey customs union agreement, as well as a discussion of the implications of membership for various sectors of the Turkish economy. This comprehensive analysis of Turkey’s bid for EU membership will interest government officials and academics alike as more candidate countries seek accession in the years ahead.
These papers examine the history behind Turkey's application for EU membership. The contributors tackle the thorny issues of Cyprus, Turkey's attitude towards a common defence policy and Turkish parliamentarians' views on the nation's relations with the European Union.
What requirements must Turkey the largest country among the candidate and accession countries meet to join the European Union? What progress has been made toward meeting them? This timely volume analyzes the economic challenges confronting Turkey in its quest to accede to the European Union (EU). It focuses on the extent to which Turkey is ready to join the Single Market, comply with the EU's body of economic regulations and directives, the 'Acquis Communautaire', and meet the Maastricht criteria for fiscal, monetary, and exchange rate policies. This book also provides an assessment of Turkey's national program to meet the accession requirements. It describes briefly what Turkey needs to achieve on the economic policy front to satisfy the conditions for accession, the progress to date, and the likely consequences of implementing the full body of EU requirements. The book is divided into four parts: An analysis of the macroeconomic policies for EU accession An analysis of the effects of integration on key sectors: agriculture; manufacturing; services industries, including banking, telecommunications, transportation, and natural gas; and network industries An exploration of key economic policy challenges, including labor market regulation, foreign direct investment challenges, and the costs and benefits of meeting the EU environmental 'Acquis' The quantification of the impact of EU accession and consideration of the welfare effects of integration While the focus is on the specific situation of Turkey, the subject will be of value to all researchers with an interest in the challenges of deeper integration through regional agreements.
European identity has always been in a state of construction. With the creation of the European Union, however, this construction now takes place within an institutional framework, introducing a number of new variables. Selcen Öner's Turkey and the European Union: The Question of European Identity is an in-depth analysis of the influence of these two entities on each others' identity as Europeans in a society of increasing social, political, and cultural connectedness. The mutual influence betweenTurks and Europeans gained significant momentum in 1999, when the European Union granted official candidate status to Turkey at that year's Helsinki Summit. Turkey's Europeanness is still being debated, despite the official stance that fulfilling the Copenhagen criteria and adopting the EU acquis are enough for being a full member of the EU. These debates have even lead to arguments between political elites of the European Union about their "privileged partnership" with Turkey. When comparing the attitudes of the European Union towards Turkey versus those towards Central and Eastern Europe, one could argue that that "return to Europe" discourse has accelerated the membership of the latter, but not the former. Currently Turkey is neither considered an "other," nor a member of the "family." Rather, Turkey is commonly relegated to the role of "crucial neighbor" or "strategic partner" by the political elites of the EU. Öner's study analyzes a series of interviews conducted with several members of the European Parliament and sheds serious light on the fact that discussions on Turkey's membership in terms of her Europeanness reveal countless ambiguities in defining European identity. It is clear that there is no common understanding or definition of Europeanidentity, even amongst political leaders in the EU who challenge Turkey's authenticity as a member of European society. Thus, Selcen Öner's Turkey and the European Union: The Question of European Identity argues that the position of Turkey vis-à-vis the European Union will set a compelling benchmark for European identity construction in the future.
The accession of Turkey to the EU presents a fascinating case study for all those with an interest in europeanisation. Officially recognised as a candidate for full membership in 1999 Turkey's negotiations with the EU have been protracted and highly controversial. Turkey and the European Union: Processes of Europeanisation offers a coherent and focussed account of Turkey's recent relations and accession negotiations with the EU. Europeanisation as an explanatory tool is used to review how the EU has successfully induced change in Turkish policies and institutions whilst careful analysis is also conducted into where europeanisation has failed and explores how it may even have inadvertently contributed to forming a backlash against accession. Authoritative local and International contributors provide in-depth analysis as to why the process has had such a varied impact across a range of policies and institutions and ask, given the high costs of joining the EU and decreasing incentives, if europeanisation can still exert an influence in the future. Despite Turkey's unique geographical and political position between East and West the relationship with the EU is not a case sui generis. This book offers valuable insights on the effectiveness of europeanisation for all those within and without the framework of the European Union.
In late 2005 Turkey began accession talks with the European Union. It now seems that some EU member states consider Turkish accession inherently undesirable. The Committee strongly supports the United Kingdom Government's position that Turkey's accession to the EU offers potential benefits for both sides. This not to underplay the difficulties and obstacles. The Irish "No" vote in the referendum on the Lisbon Treaty has led some European leaders to say there can be no enlargement without institutional reform. Turkey itself has faced severe political and constitutional difficulties this year. The country has a relatively large economy, but GDP per capita still remains low and inflation high by developed country standards. Political and social reforms will be necessary. Migration from Turkey will need to be carefully managed. The conflict over Cyprus also has to be resolved. The Committee's fear is that the negative signals recently sent out by some EU member states will reduce the political will to negotiate. Suspending or frustrating the accession negotiations will signal to a moderate, democratic, secular state that it can never be part of Europe. Whatever the reasons given for any suspension, the belief in Turkey would be likely to be that the country could not join purely because the majority of its population is Muslim. That is not a signal the Committee believes should be given. Turkey is a large economy, in a key strategic position, with high growth rates, a young population (compared with current EU member states) and sizeable investment flows. Turkey needs to be reassured that, if it demonstrates its commitment to negotiation and reform, that commitment will be fully matched by the EU and that the door to membership remains wide open.
It is generally assumed that regional integration leads to stability and peace. This book is a systematic study of the impact of European integration on the transformation of border conflicts. It provides a theoretical framework centred on four 'pathways' of impact and applies them to five cases of border conflicts: Cyprus, Ireland, Greece/Turkey, Israel/Palestine and various conflicts on Russia's border with the EU. The contributors suggest that integration and association provide the EU with potentially powerful means to influence border conflicts, but that the EU must constantly re-adjust its policies depending on the dynamics of each conflict. Their findings reveal the conditions upon which the impact of integration rests and challenge the widespread notion that integration is necessarily good for peace. This book will appeal to scholars and students of international relations, European politics, and security studies studying European integration and conflict analysis.
Drawing on interviews with Civil Society organizations and in conjunction with an examination of EU Civil Society Policy and the legal and institutional environment in Turkey this book examines EU policies on Turkish Civil Society organizations and highlights the significant constraints and limited impacts of these policies.
This book provides an analytical contribution to the contested issues marking Turkish membership to the European Union. On October 2005 Turkey started the accession process towards EU membership. Currently, many Europeans fear that large numbers of Turkish nationals will flood member countries if Turkey were to become a member, highlighting that many Turkish immigrants have failed to integrate into their host societies due to cultural difference. Yet, others argue that Turkey is a dynamic society with a growing educated population that could help address the dilemmas faced by most member countries, emphasizing that accession would assist the integration of current immigrants in Europe. Turkish Immigrants in the European Union addresses the following: What are the demographic trends in Turkey compared to the member countries? What is the potential scope and driving forces of immigration from Turkey to the EU? How will these trends affect Turkish immigrants in Europe? What is the integration problem of Turkish immigrants and how can it be resolved? This book was previously published as a special issue of Turkish Studies and will be of interest to students and scholars of European studies and European integration.
The development of EU enlargement has raised many thorny issues unanticipated by the framers of the EC Treaty. A significant upshot of these issues is that the concept of European identity - defined in terms of such factors as culture, history and economics - has supplanted the long-dominant theme of 'widening and deepening, ' particularly since the Union's expansion has become primarily eastward. The major contribution of this important book lies in its analysis of the conceptualization and perception of enlargement from various points of view, focusing on the concerns of stakeholders and the 'identity' conflicts and uncertainties incurred by enlargement initiatives. In the course of its presentation, it details the actual pre-accession Europeanization process and its complex history. Among the key elements discussed are the following: the conflict between 'widening' and 'deepening' and the effect on EU institutional reform; institutional requirements on candidate countries; pre-accession criteria and negotiations; administrative capacity, judicial capacity, and legal approximation in accession states; capacity of the EU to absorb new Member States; and EC law as part of European identity. Also covered are specific historical details of particular pre-accession negotiations (e.g., Greece, Spain, Portugal, Malta, and Cyprus), the still inconclusive negotiations with Turkey and the Western Balkan states, and political factors involved in the non-accession of Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. Assembling powerful evidence and applying incisive analysis, the author's conclusion shows that, absent further (and major) EU institutional reform, it will be difficult for an enlarging Union to continue to 'deliver the goods.' A watershed in the continuing great debate on the fulfilment of the EC Treaty's determination to foster and promote 'an ever closer union of the peoples of Europe, ' this book will prove invaluable to anybody interested in the European integration project, particularly lawyers, academics, officials and policymakers in the EU Member States.
Enlargement to Turkey is arguably the greatest challenge facing the European Union today. After the narrowly averted "train crash" over Cyprus in 2006, the second election victory of the Justice and Development Party in July 2007 opened new prospects for Turkish-EU relations. But in an EU emphasising a collective identity based on shared civilisational values, Turkey’s European credentials have been increasingly called into question. Amending national identity through political change has become the key to the success or failure of the Turkish integration project. This volume examines the EU role in strengthening the domestic pro-reform coalition within Turkey, the paradox - and potential limits - of Turkey’s europeanising Islamists, and the impact of Europeanisation through conditionality, including a case study of Turkish policy towards the Cyprus Question. Also addressed are the Western stereotypes of Turkish identity influencing the country’s EU prospects, notably concerning the role of Islam in precipitating acts of political violence and its association with sexual and political violence in the discourse of European opponents of Turkish accession. Finally, the dynamics of EU accession negotiations are analysed and the potential role of a norm-driven rhetorical strategy in promoting Turkish accession as a moral and democratic imperative is discussed.
This book is a multi-faceted exploration of the Cyprus conflict in Europe, which investigates the international settling of the conflict, its modernist features, particularly European influences over identity, and postmodernization as a possible solution. The contributors to this book not only pursue fresh theoretical perspectives in an area that has so far been largely under-theorized, but also critically examine current European policies in search of alternatives.