Vulnerability is an essential but also an intriguing ambiguous part of the human condition. This book con-ceptualizes vulnerability to be a fundamental threat and deficit and at the same time to be a powerful resource for transformation.The exploration is undertaken in multidisciplinary perspectives and approaches the human condition in fruitful conversations with medical, psychological, legal, theological, political and philosophical investiga-tions of vulnerability.The multidisciplinary approach opens the space for a broad variety of deeply interrelated topics. Thus, vulnerability is analyzed with respect to diverse aspects of human and social life, such as violence and power, the body and social institutions. Theologically questions of sin and redemption and eventually the nature of the Divine are taken up. Throughout the book phenomenological descriptions are combined with necessary conceptual clarifications. The contributions seek to illuminate the relation between vulnerability as a fundamental unavoidable condition and contingent actualizations related to specific dangers and risks. The core thesis of the book can be seen within its multi-perspectivity: A sound concept of vulnerability is key to a realistic, that is to say neither negative nor illusionary anthropology, to an honest post-theistic understanding of God and eventually to a deeply humanistic understanding of social life.
Raging floods, massive storms and cataclysmic earthquakes: every year up to 340 million people are affected by these and other disasters, which cause loss of life and damage to personal property, agriculture, and infrastructure. So what can be done? The key to understanding the causes of disasters and mitigating their impacts is the concept of 'vulnerability'. Mapping Vulnerability analyses 'vulnerability' as a concept central to the way we understand disasters and their magnitude and impact. Written and edited by a distinguished group of disaster scholars and practitioners, this book is a counterbalance to those technocratic approaches that limit themselves to simply looking at disasters as natural phenomena. Through the notion of vulnerability, the authors stress the importance of social processes and human-environmental interactions as causal agents in the making of disasters. They critically examine what renders communities unsafe - a condition, they argue, that depends primarily on the relative position of advantage or disadvantage that a particular group occupies within a society's social order. The book also looks at vulnerability in terms of its relationship to development and its impact on policy and people's lives, through consideration of selected case studies drawn from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Mapping Vulnerability is essential reading for academics, students, policymakers and practitioners in disaster studies, geography, development studies, economics, environmental studies and sociology.
The primary groundwater management issue in many countries today is pollution. The key to understanding the transport of a pollutant from the ground surface or near surface into an aquifer is an understanding of recharge. This allows the vulnerability of aquifers to pollution to be classified and appropriate land zones to be defined. This text provides an up-to-date description of the relationship between pollution, recharge and vulnerability set against the current groundwater protection policies of the UK and Ireland. There are keynote overviews for each topic.
This book explores positive adaptation in at-risk children, providing suggestions for intervention and social policy.
An examination of the psychological literature on victimisation shows disproportionately that we know more about the predator than we do the victim. Moreover, almost all the literature on the victim is presented from either a reductionistic or cognitive-behavioural point of view. This book examines the psychology of a victim of repeated criminal acts from the existential-humanistic perspective. The method used is the single case study. The subject, currently age 51, a pilot, was the victim of identity theft, extortion, and duress. These crimes, some of which are treated under federal law as violent by their nature or effect, resulted in a large, unrecoverable financial loss, suspension of the pilot's medical certification required to operate aircraft, abrupt termination of his chosen career, a continuing governmental record of being delusional despite overwhelming proof to the contrary, lasting emotional and physical distress, as well as other consequences. Meanwhile, the predator has harmed dozens of individuals, forming a diverse cohort. chronology of events defining his victimisation, which is followed by an existential interpretation. Interviews and archival data, including written and audio forms of documentation, have been incorporated into the study. Seven criteria were selected from existential-humanistic psychology that have been applied in the exploration of the behaviour and personality of the victim such as: the interior life-world of the person; self-actualisation needs vs. adjustment to social norms; meaning through suffering; being in the face of non-being; attitudes toward death and annihilation; dreams, visions, and mythic experience; and, existential use of the void. The study found characteristics of the psyche of a particular victim that may have made him vulnerable. These characteristics include: being overly trusting; being under the influence of a hero-rescuer archetype; and being overly reliant on instruments due to training as a pilot. Mainstream psychology has ignored this dimension, which is needed to understand the total person.
Floods are of increasing public concern world-wide due to increasing damages and unacceptably high numbers of injuries. Previous approaches of flood protection led to limited success especially during recent extreme events. Therefore, an integrated flood risk management is required which takes into consideration both the hydrometeorogical and the societal processes. Moreover, real effects of risk mitigation measures have to be critically assessed. The book draws a comprehensive picture of all these aspects and their interrelations. It furthermore provides a lot of detail on earth observation, flood hazard modelling, climate change, flood forecasting, modelling vulnerability, mitigation measures and the various dimensions of management strategies. In addition to local and regional results of science, engineering and social science investigations on modelling and management, transboundary co-operation of large river catchments are of interest. Based on this, the book is a valuable source of the state of the art in flood risk management but also covers future demands for research and practice in terms of flood issues.
This state-of-the-art work has been highly praised for bridging the divide between adult and developmental psychopathology. The volume illuminates the interplay of biological, cognitive, affective, and social-environmental factors that place individuals at risk for psychological disturbance throughout development. Childhood-onset and adult forms of major disorders are examined in paired chapters by prominent clinical researchers. An integrative third chapter on each disorder then summarizes what is known about continuity and change in vulnerability across the lifespan. Implications for assessment, treatment, and prevention are also considered.
This introductory user's guide to systems analysis and systems design focuses on building sustainable information systems to meet tomorrow's needs. It shows how practitioners can apply multiple participatory perspectives in development, so as to avoid future problems. As a practical guide, it is presented to be readily comprehensible and is organized to enable users to concentrate on their goals efficiently, and with minimum theoretical elaboration. The chapters follow the sequence involved in planning an information system, explaining key words, the time involved in each step, ending with a tutorial or exercises.
First Published in 2008. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
The ‘Year’ That Changed How We View the North This book is about a new theoretical approach that transformed the field of Arctic social studies and about a program called International Polar Year 2007–2008 (IPY) that altered the position of social research within the broader polar science. The concept for IPY was developed in 2003–2005; its vision was for researchers from many nations to work together to gain cro- disciplinary insight into planetary processes, to explore and increase our understanding of the polar regions, the Arctic and Antarctica, and of their roles in the global system. IPY 2007–2008, the fourth program of its kind, followed in the footsteps of its predecessors, the first IPY in 1882–1883, the second IPY in 1932–1933, and the third IPY (later renamed to ‘International Geophysical Year’ or IGY) in 1957–1958. All earlier IPY/IGY have been primarily geophysical initiatives, with their focus on meteorology, atmospheric and geomagnetic observations, and with additional emphasis on glaciology and sea ice circulation. As such, they excluded socio-economic disciplines and polar indigenous people, often deliberately, except for limited ethnographic and natural history collection work conducted by some expeditions of the first IPY. That once dominant vision biased heavily towards geophysics, oceanography, and ice-sheets, left little if any place for people, that is, the social sciences and the humanities, in what has been commonly viewed as the ‘hard-core’ polar research.
Human vulnerability can stem from both natural and human-induced environmental threats
Vulnerability analysis, also known as vulnerability assessment, is a process that defines, identifies, and classifies the security holes, or vulnerabilities, in a computer, network, or application. In addition, vulnerability analysis can forecast the effectiveness of proposed countermeasures and evaluate their actual effectiveness after they are put into use. Vulnerability Analysis and Defense for the Internet provides packet captures, flow charts and pseudo code, which enable a user to identify if an application/protocol is vulnerable. This edited volume also includes case studies that discuss the latest exploits.
This study measures the vulnerability of farmers to climatic extremes such as droughts, floods and hailstorms, by employing the "vulnerability as expected poverty" approach. This approach is based on estimating the probability that a given shock or set of shocks will move household consumption below a given minimum level (such as the consumption poverty line) or force the consumption level to stay below the given minimum if it is already below this level. The utilized data come from a household survey of farmers performed during the 2004/2005 production year in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The results show that the farmers' vulnerability is highly sensitive to their minimum daily requirement (poverty line). For instance, when the daily minimum income is fixed at 0.3 United States dollars (USD) per day, only 12.4 percent of farmers are vulnerable to climate extremes, whereas 99 percent of farmers are vulnerable when the minimum requirement is fixed at 2 USD per day. The results further indicate that farmers in kola agro-ecological zones (which are warm and semi-arid) are the most vulnerable to extreme climatic events. Policy-wise, these preliminary results indicate that, keeping other factors constant, increasing the incomes of farmers (with special emphasis on those in kola agro-ecological zones) and enabling them to meet their daily minimum requirements will reduce their vulnerability to climatic extremes.
To assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing technical and financial support for the development of climate change studies in 55 countries. This document presents preliminary results from the vulnerability and adaptation assessment research of 13 of the countries that were ready to share their results. The countries contributing to this document are from the African, Asian-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American regions, and their assessments address impacts in the agriculture, grasslands, forest, water resources, and coastal resources sectors. This document includes results from many countries for which there was no prior research on the potential impacts of climate change, or for which the research has not previously been widely available. This work will not only fill gaps in the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and the effectiveness of adaptation strategies, it will also help develop a consensus on appropriate methodologies and needs for refinement to currently available methodologies.
This study reviews the literature on the origins of currency and banking crises. It presents empirical tests on the performance of alternative early-warning indicators for emerging-market economies. The book also identifies crisis-threshold values for early-warning indicators.