When disaster strikes in cities the effects can be catastrophic compared to other environments. But what factors actually determine the vulnerability or resilience of cities? The Vulnerability of Cities fills a vital gap in disaster studies by examining the too-often overlooked impact of disasters on cities, the conditions leading to high losses from urban disasters and why some households and communities withstand disaster more effectively than others. Mark Pelling takes a fresh look at the literature on disasters and urbanization in light of recent catastrophes. He presents three detailed studies of cities in the global South, drawn from countries with contrasting political and developmental contexts: Bridgetown, Barbados - a liberal democracy; Georgetown, Guyana - a post socialist-state; and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - an authoritarian state in democratic transition. This book demonstrates that strengthening local capacity - through appropriate housing, disaster-preparedness, infrastructure and livelihoods - is crucial to improving civic resilience to disasters. Equally important are strong partnerships between local community-based organizations, external non-governmental and governmental organizations, public and private sectors and between city and national government. The author highlights and discusses these best practices for handling urban disasters. With rapid urbanization across the globe, this book is a must-read for professionals, policy-makers, students and researchers in disaster management, urban development and planning, transport planning, architecture, social studies and earth sciences.
This edited collection brings together scholars and practitioners to consider the ways in which policing organisations approach vulnerability and the strategies they develop to reduce victims, offenders and police officers’ susceptibility to increased harm. Based on their work with policing services, the public criminologists and critical policing scholars collected together in this edited volume consider vulnerability in terms of people, processes, and institutional practices. While more attention is being paid to some experiences of vulnerability — particularly at the later stages of the criminal justice process — this collection will be the first to focus on the specific issues faced by policing services as the front end of criminal justice. The case studies of vulnerability in each chapter offer the reader new insights into the operational concerns in working with vulnerable people (including vulnerable police officers). This collection is ideally suited for scholars of applied criminal justice studies (including policing studies), police recruits and officers in training, and policing practitioners such as policy and program development officers.
�Sound and solid case studies on vulnerability and adaptation have been woefully lacking in the international discourse on climate change. This set of books begins to bridge the gap.�Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director of United Nations Environment Programme�Important reading for students and practitioners alike.�Martin Parry, Co-Chair, Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)�This book fills an important gap in our understanding ... It is policy-relevant and deserves to be widely read.�Richard Klein, Senior Research Fellow, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), SwedenThe award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2007 to the IPCC brings needed attention to the threats from climate change for highly vulnerable regions of the developing world. This authoritative volume (along with its companion covering adaptation) resulting from the work of the Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC) project launched with the IPCC in 2002, is the first to provide an in-depth investigation of the stakes in developing countries. It discusses who is vulnerable and the nature and causes of their vulnerability for parts of the world that have been poorly researched till now. It also provides researchers with new examples of applications of vulnerability assessment methods, an approach that is of growing interest in the climate change area but for which there are relatively few applications in the literature.Published with TWAS and START
Previously published as a Gotham Books hardcover.
Raging floods, massive storms and cataclysmic earthquakes: every year up to 340 million people are affected by these and other disasters, which cause loss of life and damage to personal property, agriculture, and infrastructure. So what can be done? The key to understanding the causes of disasters and mitigating their impacts is the concept of 'vulnerability'. Mapping Vulnerability analyses 'vulnerability' as a concept central to the way we understand disasters and their magnitude and impact. Written and edited by a distinguished group of disaster scholars and practitioners, this book is a counterbalance to those technocratic approaches that limit themselves to simply looking at disasters as natural phenomena. Through the notion of vulnerability, the authors stress the importance of social processes and human-environmental interactions as causal agents in the making of disasters. They critically examine what renders communities unsafe - a condition, they argue, that depends primarily on the relative position of advantage or disadvantage that a particular group occupies within a society's social order. The book also looks at vulnerability in terms of its relationship to development and its impact on policy and people's lives, through consideration of selected case studies drawn from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Mapping Vulnerability is essential reading for academics, students, policymakers and practitioners in disaster studies, geography, development studies, economics, environmental studies and sociology.
Human health and well being are closely intertwined with the ability to access affordable and modern domestic energy services, including heating, cooling, lighting, cooking, and information technology. Energy poverty is said to occur when such amenities cannot be secured up to a socially- and physically- necessitated level. Millions of people across the world suffer from energy poverty due to a combination of financial, social and technical circumstances. Energy Poverty and Vulnerability provides novel and critical perspectives on the drivers and consequences of energy-related injustices in the home. Drawing together original research conducted by leading experts, the book offers fresh and innovative insights into the ways in which hitherto unexplored factors such as cultural norms, environmental conditions and household needs combine to shape vulnerability to energy poverty. Case studies from a wide range of countries are presented, thus providing the first globally-integrated account of a policy and research domain that has previously been divided between the Global South and North. An examination of the diverse manifestations of energy poverty is supplemented by an identification of this condition’s shared and context-specific causes. Conveying policy-relevant insights that can inform decision-making, this book can be of great interest to students and scholars of energy demand, social justice, and sustainability transitions, as well as decision-makers and practitioners who wish to find out more about this complex issue.
Social Infrastructure and Vulnerability in the Suburbs examines how the combination of the low-density, car-centric geography of outer suburbs and neoliberal governance in the past several decades has affected disadvantaged populations in North American metro areas. Taking the example of York Region, a large outer suburb north of Toronto, the authors provide a spatial analysis that illuminates the invisible geography of vulnerability in the region. The volume examines access to social services by vulnerable groups who are not usually associated with the suburbs: recent immigrants, seniors, and low-income families. Investigating their access to four types of social infrastructure – education, employment, housing, and settlement services – this book presents a range of policy recommendations for how to address the social inequalities that characterize contemporary outer suburbs.
We believe it to be indisputable that the smallest and weakest within the international community, those with the least political clout, military strength or economic resilience, are among the ones who are likely to suffer most and whose special vulnerabilities are likely to go unnoticed and unrelieved for the longest time. We believe there are compelling obligations that derive from these realities: obligations on the international community, obligations on the Commonwealth itself—which has within its membership so many small states—and, of course, obligations that fall on small states themselves. All concerned must acknowledge and begin to fulfill these obligations. - From the Group ReportThey (Small States) have demonstrated that they have a valid part to play in the evolution of world society. It is therefore imperative that the international system be so organised that these states are enabled not only to exist, but to prosper and themselves to contribute to international harmony. In the pursuit of that goal of enhanced international co-operation there surely must be progress towards strengthening the global system of collective security. It would be fitting if the 40th year of the United Nations could be marked by a series of steps which ensured a safer and more prosperous future for the smallest members of the world community. - From the Foreword by Commonwealth, Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal
The instant access that hackers have to the latest tools and techniques demands that companies become more aggressive in defending the security of their networks. Conducting a network vulnerability assessment, a self-induced hack attack, identifies the network components and faults in policies, and procedures that expose a company to the damage caused by malicious network intruders. Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them. By following the procedures outlined in this guide, a company can pinpoint what individual parts of their network need to be hardened, and avoid expensive and unnecessary purchases.
Originally a private collection written as a form of self-reflection, it is now being publicized as a manner of revealing my innermost thoughts and a tentative first step toward becoming a writer. The overflowing thoughts of a sixteen-year-old fit into words and stanzas, paragraphs and verses. I cram them into broken poems and strings of words threaded together by an array of artistic nothingness.
This book explores issues central to contemporary theoretical debates around the nature of trust, linking abstract concerns to empirical analysis with interviews with service-users, practitioners and managers.
This volume breaks new ground by investigating the ethics of vulnerability. Drawing on various ethical traditions, the contributors explore the nature of vulnerability, the responsibilities owed to the vulnerable, and by whom.
The research presented in this volume focuses on identifying and quantifying the major vulnerabilities to climate change in the Midwestern United States. By providing state-of-the-art spatially disaggregated information regarding the historical, current, and possible future climate within the region, the contributors assess the risks and susceptibility of the critical socio-economic and environmental systems. Key sectors discussed are agriculture, human health, water, energy and infrastructure, and the vulnerabilities that may be amplified under current climate trajectories. The book also considers the challenges and opportunities to develop local and regional strategies for addressing the risks posed by climate change in the context of developing an integrative policy for the region.
Biologists have known for decades that many traits involved in competition for mates or other resources and that influence mate choice are exaggerated, and their expression is influenced by the individuals’ ability to tolerate a variety of environmental and social stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability applies this concept of heightened sensitivity to humans for a host of physical, social, psychological, cognitive, and brain traits. By reframing the issue entirely, renowned evolutionary psychologist David C. Geary demonstrates this principle can be used to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes and identify specific traits in each sex and at different points in development that are most easily disrupted by exposure to stressors. Evolution of Vulnerability begins by reviewing the expansive literature on traits predicted to show sex-specific sensitivity to environmental and social stressors, and details the implications for better assessing and understanding the consequences of exposure to these stressors. Next, the book reviews sexual selection—mate competition and choice—and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of condition dependent traits and the stressors that can undermine their development and expression, such as poor early nutrition and health, parasites, social stress, and exposure to man-made toxins. Then it reviews condition dependent traits (physical, behavioral, cognitive, and brain) in birds, fish, insects, and mammals to demonstrate the ubiquity of these traits in nature. The focus then turns to humans and covers sex-specific vulnerabilities in children and adults for physical traits, social behavior, psychological wellbeing, and brain and cognitive traits. The sensitivity of these traits is related to exposure to parasites, poor nutrition, social maltreatment, environmental toxins, chemotherapy, and Alzheimer’s disease, among others. The book concludes with an implications chapter that outlines how to better assess vulnerabilities in children and adults and how to more fully understand how, why, and when in development some types of environmental and social stressors are particularly harmful to humans. Describes evolved sex differences, providing predictions on the traits that will show sex-specific vulnerabilities Presents an extensive review of condition-dependent traits in non-human species, greatly expanding existing reviews published in scientific journals, and more critically, extending these to humans Applies condition-dependent traits to humans to identify children, adolescents, or populations at risk for poor long-term outcomes
There is constant pressure on managers to improve the efficiency of their supply chains, allowing materials to move quickly and at low cost. This pressure has encouraged a stream of new initiatives and methods, but these new methods also increase the supply chain's vulnerability to disruptions. By removing the slack that used to protect supply chains from unforeseen events, they create inflexible chains where even a small, unexpected event can bring everything to a standstill. These unexpected events define the risks, and supply chain risk management is the function responsible for managing them. Supply Chain Risk Management introduces the principles of this function. It reviews the current thinking on the subject, describes methods that are most widely used, and shows where the subject is heading. Aimed at anyone who wants to know about risk management and its growing impact on the supply chain, it takes a straightforward approach, developing ideas in a logical sequence.
This volume offers state-of-the-art research on the interrelations between the social, built, and natural environments. It will be useful to scholars in cross-cutting areas of urban, hazard, planning, governance, and sustainability research in relation to socio-psychological perspectives. Readers will benefit from new theoretical as well as empirically based research findings in the emerging field of social-science vulnerability studies. • The contributions in this volume cover six broad research fields: • Reflections on vulnerability and risks in complex environments • Coping with climate change and natural hazards • Social dimensions of vulnerability and risks • Participation and strategies of risk reduction • Strengthening pro-environmental behavior • Place making and urban design The volume includes papers investigating human habitats within a variety of settlement structures and settings that are negatively affected by extreme weather events, natural hazards, infectious diseases, contaminations, or crime; as well as empirical case studies describing ways to strengthen environmentally sound behavior and how people behave in specific conditions, e.g., in post-disaster settlements. The focus of the book is on the necessity of studying vulnerability, risks, and complexity as expressions of the impact that global change has on human habitats. These include not only climate and hazard impacts but also new socio-demographic trends and regional economic developments that influence people’s quality of life and their capacities to cope with global change.
As concerns about violence, war, terrorism, sexuality, and embodiment have garnered attention in philosophy, the concept of vulnerability has become a shared reference point in these discussions. As a fundamental part of the human condition, vulnerability has significant ethical import: how one responds to vulnerability matters, whom one conceives as vulnerable and which criteria are used to make such demarcations matters, how one deals with one’s own vulnerability matters, and how one understands the meaning of vulnerability matters. Yet, the meaning of vulnerability is commonly taken for granted and it is assumed that vulnerability is almost exclusively negative, equated with weakness, dependency, powerlessness, deficiency, and passivity. This reductively negative view leads to problematic implications, imperiling ethical responsiveness to vulnerability, and so prevents the concept from possessing the normative value many theorists wish it to have. When vulnerability is regarded as weakness and, concomitantly, invulnerability is prized, attentiveness to one’s own vulnerability and ethical response to vulnerable others remain out of reach goals. Thus, this book critiques the ideal of invulnerability, analyzes the problems that arise from a negative view of vulnerability, and articulates in its stead a non-dualistic concept of vulnerability that can remedy these problems.
The primary groundwater management issue in many countries today is pollution. The key to understanding the transport of a pollutant from the ground surface or near surface into an aquifer is an understanding of recharge. This allows the vulnerability of aquifers to pollution to be classified and appropriate land zones to be defined. This text provides an up-to-date description of the relationship between pollution, recharge and vulnerability set against the current groundwater protection policies of the UK and Ireland. There are keynote overviews for each topic.
Provides Assessments Of The Impacts, Vulnerabilities And Adaptation Needs For The Key Economic And Ecological Sectors Of India. The Sectors Assessed Include Water, Agriculture, Forestry, Eco-System, Health, Colonial Zones, Energy And Infrastructure. Of Interest To Policy Makers And Researchers. An Excellent Addition To Literature On Global Environmental Assessment Methodology, Policies And Perspectives.