In the 1990s a Japanese conservationist group, inspired by North American examples, launched a campaign for the reintroduction of the wolf in Japan. In addition to restoring Japan's natural heritage, the main reason offered for its reintroduction is that the wolf would be the saviour of upland areas of Japan suffering from wildlife pestilence. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the Kii Peninsula in western Japan, one of the areas nominated for reintroduction, this book critically examines the problem of people-wildlife conflicts in Japan from a social anthropological perspective. Focusing on wild boar, monkeys, deer, serow, and bears, it describes the relationship to these animals on the part of farmers, foresters, hunters, and tourists. This detailed case study shows that conflicts with wildlife are inextricably bound up with social conflict among people, and that wildlife pestilence must therefore be understood in terms of its symbolic, as well as material dimensions.
Many Japanese once revered the wolf as Oguchi no Magami, or Large-Mouthed Pure God, but as Japan began its modern transformation wolves lost their otherworldly status and became noxious animals that needed to be killed. By 1905 they had disappeared from the country. In this spirited and absorbing narrative, Brett Walker takes a deep look at the scientific, cultural, and environmental dimensions of wolf extinction in Japan and tracks changing attitudes toward nature through Japan's long history. Grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching the elusive canine to protect their crops from the sharp hooves and voracious appetites of wild boars and deer. Talismans and charms adorned with images of wolves protected against fire, disease, and other calamities and brought fertility to agrarian communities and to couples hoping to have children. The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolflike creature and a goddess. In the eighteenth century, wolves were seen as rabid man-killers in many parts of Japan. Highly ritualized wolf hunts were instigated to cleanse the landscape of what many considered as demons. By the nineteenth century, however, the destruction of wolves had become decidedly unceremonious, as seen on the island of Hokkaido. Through poisoning, hired hunters, and a bounty system, one of the archipelago's largest carnivores was systematically erased. The story of wolf extinction exposes the underside of Japan's modernization. Certain wolf scientists still camp out in Japan to listen for any trace of the elusive canines. The quiet they experience reminds us of the profound silence that awaits all humanity when, as the Japanese priest Kenko taught almost seven centuries ago, we "look on fellow sentient creatures without feeling compassion."
Many Japanese once revered the wolf as Oguchi no Magami, or Large-Mouthed Pure God, but as Japan began its modern transformation wolves lost their otherworldly status and became noxious animals that needed to be killed. By 1905 they had disappeared from the country. In this spirited and absorbing narrative, Brett Walker takes a deep look at the scientific, cultural, and environmental dimensions of wolf extinction in Japan and tracks changing attitudes toward nature through Japan's long history. Grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching the elusive canine to protect their crops from the sharp hooves and voracious appetites of wild boars and deer. Talismans and charms adorned with images of wolves protected against fire, disease, and other calamities and brought fertility to agrarian communities and to couples hoping to have children. The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolflike creature and a goddess. In the eighteenth century, wolves were seen as rabid man-killers in many parts of Japan. Highly ritualized wolf hunts were instigated to cleanse the landscape of what many considered as demons. By the nineteenth century, however, the destruction of wolves had become decidedly unceremonious, as seen on the island of Hokkaido. Through poisoning, hired hunters, and a bounty system, one of the archipelago's largest carnivores was systematically erased. The story of wolf extinction exposes the underside of Japan's modernization. Certain wolf scientists still camp out in Japan to listen for any trace of the elusive canines. The quiet they experience reminds us of the profound silence that awaits all humanity when, as the Japanese priest Kenko taught almost seven centuries ago, we "look on fellow sentient creatures without feeling compassion."
The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
The Routledge Handbook of Tourism Research is a compendium of some of the most relevant issues affecting tourism development today. The topics addressed in this book provide some new thinking for those involved in tourism research. This book takes the reader from the beginnings of tourism research to a discussion of emerging forms of tourism and selected examples of tourism development. The underlying theoretical dimensions are reviewed, analysed and discussed from a number of perspectives. This book brings together leading researchers, many of whom are members of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, to discuss tourism today and its future. The works included in this volume are diverse, in terms of geographical context, research methodology, root discipline, and perspective. This book represents studies based in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia. Research methodologies include both quantitative and qualitative. Both macro and micro issues are discussed from the economic, psychological, sociological, political science, marketing, and other perspectives, which reflect the interdisciplinary nature of tourism studies.? This book is divided into 6 sections. Section 1 considers the foundations for tourism research. Section 2 discusses the implications for destination management and section 3 discusses planning for tourism development. Section 4 covers human capital for tourism development. And finally, section 5 evaluates emerging forms of tourism and then section 6 offers insights into tourism evolution. It offers the reader a comprehensive synthesis of this field, conveying the latest thinking and research. The text will provide an invaluable resource for all those with an interest in tourism research. This is essential reading for students, researchers & academics of Tourism as well as those of related studies in particular Leisure, Hospitality & Development Studies.
A fascinating look at how the deciduous forests of the northern hemisphere have developed across time and space, providing the insights we need to preserve them today
Every person on the planet is entangled in a web of ecological relationships that link farms and factories with human consumers. Our lives depend on these relationships -- and are imperiled by them as well. Nowhere is this truer than on the Japanese archipelago. During the nineteenth century, Japan saw the rise of Homo sapiens industrialis, a new breed of human transformed by an engineered, industrialized, and poisonous environment. Toxins moved freely from mines, factory sites, and rice paddies into human bodies. Toxic Archipelago explores how toxic pollution works its way into porous human bodies and brings unimaginable pain to some of them. Brett Walker examines startling case studies of industrial toxins that know no boundaries: deaths from insecticide contaminations; poisonings from copper, zinc, and lead mining; congenital deformities from methylmercury factory effluents; and lung diseases from sulfur dioxide and asbestos. This powerful, probing book demonstrates how the Japanese archipelago has become industrialized over the last two hundred years -- and how people and the environment have suffered as a consequence.
Our relationship with animals is complex and contradictory: we hunt, kill, and eat them, yet we also love, respect and protect them. This ambivalent relationship is further complicated by the fact that we attribute human emotions and intelligence to animals. We even go as far as likening them to children and treating them as family members. Drawing on a diverse range of case studies, this book attempts to unravel our intimate and fascinating link with the animal kingdom.
China's economy has been growing at ten per cent per annum for the last three decades. This book considers one of the biggest questions facing contemporary economists: why and how is the Chinese economy growing so fast?
This book is a detailed study of monkey parks in Japan. It describes how the parks manage free-ranging macaque troops for touristic display and examines the various problems that arise, as well as proposals for park reform.
Wild pigs inhabit vast areas in Europe, Southern Asia and Africa, and have been introduced in North and South America, while feral pigs are widespread in Australia and New Zealand. Many wild pig species are threatened with extinction, but Eurasian wild boar populations, however, are increasing in many regions. Covering all wild pig and peccary species, the Suidae and Tayassuidae families, this comprehensive review presents new information about the evolution, taxonomy and domestication of wild pigs and peccaries alongside novel case studies on conservation activities and management. One hundred leading experts from twenty five countries synthesise understanding of this group of species; discussing current research, and gaps in the knowledge of researchers, conservation biologists, zoologists, wildlife managers and students. This beautifully illustrated reference includes the long history of interactions between wild pigs and humans, the benefits some species have brought us and their role and impact on natural ecosystems.
Whether it's childhood make-believe, the theater, sports, or even market speculation, play is one of humanity's seemingly purest activities: a form of entertainment and leisure and a chance to explore the world and its possibilities in an imagined environment or construct. But as Roberte Hamayon shows in this book, play has implications that go even further than that. Exploring play's many dimensions, she offers an insightful look at why play has become so ubiquitous across human cultures. Hamayon begins by zeroing in on Mongolia and Siberia, where communities host national holiday games similar to the Olympics. Within these events Hamayon explores the performance of ethical values and local identity, and then she draws her analysis into larger ideas examinations of the spectrum of play activities as they can exist in any culture. She explores facets of play such as learning, interaction, emotion, strategy, luck, and belief, and she emphasizes the crucial ambiguity between fiction and reality that is at the heart of play as a phenomenon. Revealing how consistent and coherent play is, she ultimately shows it as a unique modality of action that serves an invaluable role in the human experience.
FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY EDITION - WITH A NEW PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR Here is the Naked Ape at his most primal - in love, at work, at war. Meet man as he really is: relative to the apes, stripped of his veneer as we see him courting, making love, sleeping, socialising, grooming, playing. Zoologist Desmond Morris's classic takes its place alongside Darwin's Origin of the Species, presenting man not as a fallen angel, but as a risen ape, remarkable in his resilience, energy and imagination, yet an animal nonetheless, in danger of forgetting his origins. With its penetrating insights on man's beginnings, sex life, habits and our astonishing bonds to the animal kingdom, The Naked Ape is a landmark, at once provocative, compelling and timeless. 'Original, provocative and brilliantly entertaining. It's the sort of book that changes people's lives' Sunday Times
The relative status of native and non-native speaker language teachers within educational institutions has long been an issue worldwide but until recently, the voices of teachers articulating their own concerns have been rare. This innovative volume explores language-based forms of prejudice against native-speaker teachers.
The contributors to this book focus on the relationship between nature and society from a variety of theoretical and ethnographic perspectives. Their work draws upon recent developments in social theory, biology, ethnobiology, epistemology, sociology of science, and a wide array of ethnographic case studies -- from Amazonia, the Solomon Islands, Malaysia, the Mollucan Islands, rural comunities from Japan and north-west Europe, urban Greece, and laboratories of molecular biology and high-energy physics. The discussion is divided into three parts, emphasising the problems posed by the nature-culture dualism, some misguided attempts to respond to these problems, and potential avenues out of the current dilemmas of ecological discourse.
Human-wildlife conflict is a major issue in conservation. As people encroach into natural habitats, and as conservation efforts restore wildlife to areas where they may have been absent for generations, contact between people and wild animals is growing. Some species, even the beautiful and endangered, can have serious impacts on human lives and livelihoods. Tigers kill people, elephants destroy crops and African wild dogs devastate sheep herds left unattended. Historically, people have responded to these threats by killing wildlife wherever possible, and this has led to the endangerment of many species that are difficult neighbours. The urgent need to conserve such species, however, demands coexistence of people and endangered wildlife. This book presents a variety of solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, including novel and traditional farming practices, offsetting the costs of wildlife damage through hunting and tourism, and the development of local and national policies.
As industrial and scientific developments in early-twentieth-century Japan transformed the meaning of âeoeobjective observation,âe modern writers and poets struggled to capture what they had come to see as an evolving network of invisible relations joining people to the larger material universe. For these artists, literary modernism was a crisis of perception before it was a crisis of representation. When Our Eyes No Longer See portrays an extraordinary moment in the history of this perceptual crisis and in Japanese literature during the 1920s and 1930s. The displacement in science of âeoepositivistâe notions of observation by a âeoerealistâe model of knowledge provided endless inspiration for Japanese writers. Gregory Golley turns a critical eye to the ideological and ecological incarnations of scientific realism in several modernist works: the photographic obsessions of Tanizaki Junâe(tm)ichiroâe(tm)s Naomi, the disjunctive portraits of the imperial economy in Yokomitsu Riichiâe(tm)s Shanghai, the tender depictions of astrophysical phenomena and human-wildlife relations in the childrenâe(tm)s stories of Miyazawa Kenji. Attending closely to the political and ethical consequences of this realist turn, this study focuses on the common struggle of science and art to reclaim the invisible as an object of representation and belief.
How do language policies in schools create inequalities among learners? How do policies marginalize some students while granting privilege to others? How do language policies in education serve the interests of dominant groups within societies? How can linguistic minorities further their interests through attempts to change language policies in schools? This new edition of Language Policies in Education takes a fresh look at these enduring questions at the heart of fundamental debates about the role of schools in society, the links between education and employment, and conflicts between linguistic minorities and "mainstream" populations. Reflecting developments in language policy since the publication of the first edition in 2002, all chapters are original and substantial contributions to the study of language policy and exemplify major theories and research methods in the field. Chapter authors are major scholars in language policy and critical language studies. The case studies, international in scope, present cutting-edge analyses of important language policy debates in countries around the world.

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