Learn about the people and places of Brazil.
Brazil is located in the east coast of the South America, by Atlantic Ocean. With its area of 8,511,965 km2, constitutes one of biggest countries of the world in territorial extension. It possesses vast natural water holds; the biggest forest of the land; and flora, fauna, air, land, minerals and waters of inestimable value for the planet. It possesses around 169 million inhabitants, distributed in 26 States and a Federal District, where it is locates Brasilia capital. Brazil has a Gross Internal Product (GIP) close to USS 800 billion, and the per capita GIP is close to USS 4,719.76. It has the biggest economy of Latin America, and well developed sectors in the area of agriculture, industry, commerce and jobs. In agriculture, it is distinguished by the coffee production, soy, rice, meat, sugar cane, citric, cocoa. Its industrial park is distinguished by the production of chemical, shoes products, cement, iron, steel, airplanes, engines and automobiles, buses, machines, implements and equipment. It exports and imports around USS 50 billion per year; it has around 50 million television sets, 40 million fixed and cellular telephones, 70 million radios. This new book presents important analyses of this dynamic country.
"From a mission field to a missions sender." These words capture the story of the Brazilian evangelical church, which has gone from receiving missionaries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to becoming a movement that presently sends out more global laborers than the churches of England or Canada do. After narrating Brazil's missional shift, in this volume Smither addresses one fascinating element of the story--Brazilian evangelical efforts in the Arab world. How have Brazilians adapted culturally among Arabs, how have they approached ministry, and how have they cultivated a theology of mission in the process? Brazilian Evangelical Missions in the Arab World gives the reader insights from one emerging missions movement with an eye toward a more comprehensive view of the global church.
Focus: Music of Northeast Brazil examines the historical and contemporary manifestations of the music of Brazil, a country with a musical landscape that is layered with complexity and diversity. Based on the author’s field research during the past twenty years, the book describes and analyzes the social/historical contexts and contemporary musical practices of Afro-Brazilian religion, selected Carnival traditions, Bahia’s black cultural renaissance, the traditions of rural migrants, and currents in new popular music. Part One, Understanding Music in Brazil, presents important issues and topics that encompass all of Brazil, and provides a general survey of Brazil’s diverse musical landscape. Part Two, Creating Music in Brazil, presents historical trajectories and contemporary examples of Afro-Brazilian traditions, Carnival music, and northeastern popular music. Part Three, Focusing In, presents two case studies that explore the ground-level activities of contemporary musicians in Northeast Brazil and the ways in which they move between local, national, and international realms. The accompanying CD offers vivid musical examples that are discussed in the text
How can a World Heritage city develop within the periphery of a Brazilian metropolis? This is the challenge for Olinda, near Recife. It is one of the first cities in Brazil, founded in 1535, and contains large historic monuments, such as convents. The location of Olinda on a hill next to the Atlantic Ocean, makes up a beautiful townscape, in particular seen from nearby Recife. No major historic city in Brazil offers such an extended landscape within the city itself. Olinda is an independent municipality with almost 370,000 inhabitants. The municipality has the characteristics of the typical periphery, with poverty, unemployment, lacking urban facilities and a precarious infrastructure. This is echoed in the historic centre, which suffers from deterioration, invasions of the green space, heavy traffic and a poorly developed tourist infrastructure. Still the centre makes up the image and pride of the city. The question is how the historic centre can contribute to revitalize Olinda and its economy.
First published in 1993. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
"For years, Brazil has had a system of higher education, which has not adequately met the needs of the Brazilian companies or prospective students. In comparison to other countries in the region, Brazilian universities have enrolled a significantly smaller percentage of the eligible students, have not produced an adequately trained work force and have been cost prohibitive for lower income students. Both economic and societal pressures are now forcing changes upon the educational system. Together with the Minister for Education, members of the National Education Council, and others, World Bank staff participated in an assessment of options to improve higher education over the next two or three decades. This study describes the educational system, provides an economic perspective and contains specific policy recommendations resulting from the assessment."
Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; the majority of developing countries have not. The thirteen papers in this volume explore a broad range of factors that impact on quality of life worldwide: globalization, regionalization, recently regained political autonomy, migration, health and illness, food and agriculture, the family, and the contribution of faith and spirituality in advancing personal and collective well-being in a turbulent world.
Drawing on an eclectic array of research and evaluative studies culled from a mix of sources, this volume analyzes Brazilian hospital performance along several policy dimensions including resource allocation and use within hospitals, hospital payment mechanisms, organizational and governance arrangements, management practices, and regulation and quality. An agenda for hospital reform is proposed which synthesizes priorities that are integral to improving hospital performance-and which should be considered for implementation in the near and medium term.
The issues raised by the role of language in education are some of the most important and contentious faced by education systems across the globe. Language is embedded in the concepts of nationhood and identity, and is therefore directly linked to the very social and political fabric of a country. In a climate of increasing globalisation, development and mobility of populations, nations around the world are concerned with the tension between cultivating a sense of cultural and linguistic cohesion and making use of the linguistic diversity that exists in every country and region. This book examines the implications and impacts, the dilemmas and potential for language education in relation to education systems and wider society. Split into three key parts, it considers: *current issues in language education, including the role of language in maintaining power and inequalities, in encouraging participation and inclusion and in challenging the status quo; *different approaches to language education around the world; *the potential for language to provide opportunities for the disadvantaged, illustrated by case studies of three cities. This recent volume of the internationally respected World Yearbook of Education continues the tradition of offering a wide range of international perspectives from leading commentators on a universal concern. The material amassed here will be essential reading for teacher educators, education researchers and school leaders across the world.
The world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. 'World Development Report 2008' seeks to assess where, when, and how agriculture can be an effective instrument for economic development, especially development that favors the poor. It examines several broad questions: How has agriculture changed in developing countries in the past 20 years? What are the important new challenges and opportunities for agriculture? Which new sources of agricultural growth can be captured cost effectively in particular in poor countries with large agricultural sectors as in Africa? How can agricultural growth be made more effective for poverty reduction? How can governments facilitate the transition of large populations out of agriculture, without simply transferring the burden of rural poverty to urban areas? How can the natural resource endowment for agriculture be protected? How can agriculture's negative environmental effects be contained? This year's report marks the 30th year the World Bank has been publishing the 'World Development Report'.
Martin Mullins provides an in-depth study of the construction of foreign policy in developing countries by taking an original line of both a post-positivist methodology and an acceptance of the importance of the realism in foreign policy formation in the Southern Cone countries from the early 1980s to the present day. Highlighting the case of Chilean foreign policy in the 1990s this book examines the adoption of realism in its policy formation, in contrast to the strong historical narratives of Argentina and Brazil. This carefully constructed work examines the nuances of foreign policy making through a comprehensive study of political culture that underlines the linkages between domestic and foreign policy sets in the region.
There is an increasing awareness that access to financial services can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. This study focuses on the delivery of financial services in Brazil, one of the world's most important emerging financial markets. It examines different aspects of financial service provision, and explores approaches to address problems of financial exclusion. Topics discussed include: microfinance schemes; private banking; rural finance systems; institutional infrastructure; and the role of government policy.
"This paper assesses the impact that a potential liberalization of sugar regimes in OECD countries could have on household labor income and poverty in Brazil. The authors first estimate the extent of price transmission from world markets to 11 Brazilian states to capture the fact that some local markets may be relatively more isolated from changes in world prices. They then simultaneously estimate the impact that changes in domestic sugar prices have on regional wages and employment depending on worker characteristics. Finally, they measure the impact on household income of a 10 percent increase in world sugar prices. Results suggest that workers in the sugar sector and in sugar-producing regions have better employment opportunities and experience larger wage increases. More interestingly, households at the top of the income distribution experience larger income gains due to higher wages, whereas households at the bottom of the distribution experience larger income gains due to movements out of unemployment. "--World Bank web site.
This book engages with English in globalization, re-examining and re-interpreting the contemporary contexts of its acquisition and use. The chapters contained in this book weave together four inter-related themes that define the role of English in the global context: the `centrality of structure', `relationships of interdependence', `social constructions of difference' and `reproduction of inequality'. These themes enable the authors to draw attention to the dynamics of the contemporary realities of the `English-speaking' and `English-using' nations, especially as they compete for cultural, social, economic and symbolic capital in global networks. In engaging World Englishes with the sociolinguistics of globalization, the authors raise some fundamental questions about the status, structure, and functions of World Englishes. "What roles are English and World Englishes playing in globalization? What effect is globalization having on English and World Englishes? What effect is globalization having on other languages? Anyone interested in exploring these crucial questions will find this book a most helpful and stimulating companion. The editors have assembled an appropriately diverse all-star cast of contributors, each of whom approaches the topic from a refreshingly innovative standpoint To paraphrase OmoniyVspoem which opens the book, readers will learn to `waltz, salsa and lion-dance' (and hip-hop) their way through the complex cultural and linguistic steps of globalization."Andy Kirkpatrick, Hong Kong Institute of Education
How do the lives of indigenous peoples relate to the romanticized role of "Indians" in Brazilian history, politics, and cultural production? Native and National in Brazil charts this enigmatic relationship from the sixteenth century to the present, focusing on the consolidation of the dominant national imaginary in the postindependence period and highlighting Native peoples' ongoing work to decolonize it. Engaging issues ranging from sovereignty, citizenship, and national security to the revolutionary potential of art, sustainable development, and the gendering of ethnic differences, Tracy Devine Guzman argues that the tensions between popular renderings of "Indianness" and lived indigenous experience are critical to the unfolding of Brazilian nationalism, on the one hand, and the growth of the Brazilian indigenous movement, on the other. Devine Guzman suggests that the "indigenous question" now posed by Brazilian indigenous peoples themselves--how to be Native and national at the same time--can help us to rethink national belonging in accordance with the protection of human rights, the promotion of social justice, and the consolidation of democratic governance for indigenous and nonindigenous citizens alike.
This collection examines the effects of slavery and emancipation on race, class and gender in societies of the American South, the Caribbean, Latin America and West Africa. The contributors discuss what slavery has to teach us about patterns of adjustment and change, black identity and the extent to which enslaved peoples succeeded in creating a dynamic world of interaction between the Americas. They examine how emancipation was defined, how it affected attitudes towards slavery, patterns of labour usage and relationships between workers as well as between workers and their former owners.