This book examines the interaction between nationalism and feminism in modern Polish women's physical culture from the late nineteenth century until the end of the twentieth century. Unlike most western countries where sportswomen were typically marginalized in their athletic endeavors, Polish female athletes earned greater respect and recognition in their physical culture. On many occasions, and for varied reasons, women's athleticism in Poland was a source of immense pride and prestige for both the state and society. This form of acceptance, however, does not suggest that sportswomen faced no discrimination in their efforts to become sportive. Women's physicality remained the subject of intense debate, particularly when the socio-economic conditions worsened and threatened the survival of families. Still, despite the patriarchal and other barricades, the Polish national struggles for independence and the emergence of the "New Woman" created significant institutional and ideological spaces for sportswomen to build their physical culture. Accordingly, this book enriches the histories of Poland and modern Europe, as well as women's and sports studies.