This new book provides a unified, in-depth, readable introduction to the multipredictor regression methods most widely used in biostatistics: linear models for continuous outcomes, logistic models for binary outcomes, the Cox model for right-censored survival times, repeated-measures models for longitudinal and hierarchical outcomes, and generalized linear models for counts and other outcomes. Treating these topics together takes advantage of all they have in common. The authors point out the many-shared elements in the methods they present for selecting, estimating, checking, and interpreting each of these models. They also show that these regression methods deal with confounding, mediation, and interaction of causal effects in essentially the same way. The examples, analyzed using Stata, are drawn from the biomedical context but generalize to other areas of application. While a first course in statistics is assumed, a chapter reviewing basic statistical methods is included. Some advanced topics are covered but the presentation remains intuitive. A brief introduction to regression analysis of complex surveys and notes for further reading are provided.
This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first and higher orders are used for conditional models in addition to conditional probabilities as a function of covariates. Similarly, joint models are developed using both marginal-conditional probabilities as well as joint probabilities as a function of covariates. In addition to generalized linear models for bivariate outcomes, it highlights extended semi-parametric models for continuous failure time data and their applications in order to include models for a broader range of outcome variables that researchers encounter in various fields. The book further discusses the problem of analysing repeated measures data for failure time in the competing risk framework, which is now taking on an increasingly important role in the field of survival analysis, reliability and actuarial science. Details on how to perform the analyses are included in each chapter and supplemented with newly developed R packages and functions along with SAS codes and macro/IML. It is a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students and other users of statistical techniques for analysing repeated measures data.
"Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of Intuitive Biostatistics retains and refines the core perspectives of the previous edition: a focus on how to interpret statistical results rather than on how to analyze data, minimal use of equations, and a detailed review of assumptions and common mistakes. Intuitive Biostatistics, Completely Revised Second Edition, provides a clear introduction to statistics for undergraduate and graduate students and also serves as a statistics refresher for working scientists. New to this edition: Chapter 1 shows how our intuitions lead us to misinterpret data, thus explaining the need for statistical rigor. Chapter 11 explains the lognormal distribution, an essential topic omitted from many other statistics books. Chapter 21 contrasts testing for equivalence with testing for differences. Chapters 22, 23, and 40 explore the pervasive problem of multiple comparisons. Chapters 24 and 25 review testing for normality and outliers. Chapter 35 shows how statistical hypothesis testing can be understood as comparing the fits of alternative models. Chapters 37 and 38 provide a brief introduction to multiple, logistic, and proportional hazards regression. Chapter 46 reviews one example in great depth, reviewing numerous statistical concepts and identifying common mistakes. Chapter 47 includes 49 multi-part problems, with answers fully discussed in Chapter 48. New "Q and A" sections throughout the book review key concepts"--Provided by publisher.
The identification and use of surrogate endpoints, i.e., measures that can replace or supplement other endpoints in evaluations of experimental treatments or other interventions, is a general strategy that has stimulated both enthusiasm and scepticism. This book offers a balanced account on this controversial topic.
An excellent introduction for all those coming to the subject for the first time.New material has been added to the second edition and the original six chapters have been modified.The previous edition sold 9500 copies world wide since its release in 1996.Based on numerous courses given by the author to students and researchers in the health sciences and is written with such readers in mind. Provides a "user-friendly" layout and includes numerous illustrations and exercises. Written in such a way so as to enable readers learn directly without the assistance of a classroom instructor. Throughout, there is an emphasis on presenting each new topic backed by real examples of a survival analysis investigation, followed up with thorough analyses of real data sets.
This book provides a practical introduction to analyzing ecological data using real data sets. It features 17 case studies covering topics ranging from terrestrial ecology to marine biology and can be used as a template for a reader’s own data analysis.
Written with medical statisticians and medical researchers in mind, this intermediate-level reference explores the use of SAS for analyzing medical data. Applied Medical Statistics Using SAS covers the whole range of modern statistical methods used in the analysis of medical data, including regression, analysis of variance and covariance, longitudinal and survival data analysis, missing data, generalized additive models (GAMs), and Bayesian methods. The book focuses on performing these analyses using SAS, the software package of choice for those analysing medical data. Features Covers the planning stage of medical studies in detail; several chapters contain details of sample size estimation Illustrates methods of randomisation that might be employed for clinical trials Covers topics that have become of great importance in the 21st century, including Bayesian methods and multiple imputation Its breadth and depth, coupled with the inclusion of all the SAS code, make this book ideal for practitioners as well as for a graduate class in biostatistics or public health. Complete data sets, all the SAS code, and complete outputs can be found on an associated website:
A book/disk text for a one- or two-semester course in basics of applied biostatistics. Learning features include summaries of formulas and terms, exercises, and statistical tables. This third edition reduces emphasis on methods of computation, and concentrates more on the rationale and utility of v
This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.